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ウォーターエイドは、国際飲料水の供給と衛生の10年 (1981年 - 1990年)への対応として1981年に設立された国際的な非営利団体

ウォーターエイド
設立年 1981年
種類 非営利団体
目的 , 衛生
位置
貢献地域 国際
重要人物 Tim Wrainwright, Chief Executive
ウェブサイト www.wateraid.org

この組織は、1981年7月21日にロンドンの本社で公益信託として設立された 。 2013年の時点で、ウォーターエイドはオーストラリア、日本、スウェーデン、イギリス、アメリカに資金調達オフィスを構え、世界28カ国で活動している。 活動には、清潔な水、衛生設備 、 衛生教育を提供することが含まれる。 1987年までに、その収入は年間100万ポンドを超え、2005-2006年には2690万ポンドの収入を記録した。 2011年から2012年にかけて、英国で5580万ポンドを調達し、5400万ポンドを使った。 [1]

歴史編集

ウォーターエイドは、 アフリカアジア中央アメリカ太平洋地域の37カ国の地域団体と協力して[2] 、貧しい共同体が家庭の近くで持続可能な給水とトイレを確立し、安全な衛生習慣を推進するのを支援する。 また、弱者の利益に貢献するため、水と衛生が貧困削減計画において優先されるよう政府に働きかける。 方針の問題として、ウォーターエイドは上水道の管理と国有を支援するが、共同体や民間によるサービス提供への参加に関して特定の見解を取らない。

1991年にチャールズ英国皇太子が初代会長に就任し、ネパールでのウォーターエイドのプロジェクトを視察した。 チャールズ皇太子は今でも会長を続けている。 1993年にウォーターエイドは1000件目のプロジェクトに取り組み始め、またエチオピアのヒトサ自然流下システムへの資金供給に同意した。 このヒトサ自然流下システムは、5万人に水を供給できるという、エチオピアで実施された単体の給水システムとしては当時最大のものだった。 [3]

2003年に、ウォーターエイドはチャリティータイムズアワードでその年の英国チャリティーアワードに選ばれた。 [4] また、2006年11月、ウォーターエイドはサードセクター誌において、第三セクターの人々の投票によって「イギリスで最も賞賛されているチャリティ2006」に選ばれた。 [要出典] [5] ウォーターエイドがカテゴリーのトップになり、次いでセーブ・ザ・チルドレンとサマリタンズが選ばれた。 当時のウォーターエイドの広報および資金調達担当ディレクターであるAndrew Cook氏は、「この賞は、ウォーターエイドのすべてのスタッフとボランティアが英国と世界の両方で尽力した証です。」と述べている。 ウォーターエイドは、1995年にはストックホルム水大賞の受賞者にもなった。 [6]

ウォーターエイドは2004年に新規事務所として、ウォーターエイドアメリカ [7]、ウォーターエイドオーストラリア [8] 、そして2009年にウォーターエイドスウェーデン [9]を設立した。 同じ年には、2015年までに30カ国2500万より多くの人々に支援するという目標の新しいグローバル戦略が開始された。[10] 2010年に、WaterAid international(WAi)が正式に結成された。これはグローバルな組織になることで、ウォーターエイドのグローバル戦略を達成するための不可欠な要素である。 2011年のウォーターエイドの30周年までに、およそ1600万人に安全な水を、1,100万人以上に衛生設備の提供をすることが出来た。 [3]

WaterAid has been associated with the Glastonbury Festival since 1994. In 2006 the festival's founder Michael Eavis and his daughter Emily visited WaterAid's work in Mozambique and by 2007 130 WaterAid volunteers helped at the festival. In 2011, there were around 200 WaterAid volunteers present.[要出典]. In 2016, by which time there were over 500 Wateraid volunteers at Glastonbury, the charity introduced Talking Toilets which gave out information voiced by celebrities such as Cerys Matthews and Brian Blessed.[11]

Its twice-yearly magazine is called 'Oasis' and includes news and features on planned and completed projects. WaterAid is a founding member of the End Water Poverty campaign calling for water and sanitation for all.

Among WaterAid's many fundraising events is 'Coast Along for WaterAid',[12] a sponsored walk along sections of the South West Coast Path, which took place annually between 2005 and 2012. In 2010 the then UK Prime Minister, Gordon Brown took part.[13][14]

In 2012, WaterAid partnered with Waterlogic to help raise funds for the poorest communities in the world, to provide them with clean and sanitary water.[15] Waterlogic's Firewall technology purifies water and destroys harmful bacteria.[16] Waterlogic pledged $225,000 USD to WaterAid over 3 years.[17]

Fundraising events and initiatives in 2013 included The WaterAid200 Mountain Challenge[18] as well as various running, cycling and other sporting challenges [19] as well as Street fundraising.

ザンビアでのウォーターエイド編集

WaterAid first started work in Zambia during the 1992-1994 drought.[20] Since then, the organization has expanded its operations to seven districts in the country, five of which are in the Southern Province (Monze, Siavonga, Namwala, Itezhitezhi and Kazungula) while the other two are Kafue in Lusaka Province and Kaoma in Western Province.[21] The organization spends about ZMK8-9 billion (just over £1 million) annually on projects there,[22] and have since provided 42,600 people in Zambia with access to clean, safe water.[23]

モンツェ地区の取り組み編集

WaterAid is working with the government to help extend access to safe water, sanitation and improved hygiene for rural communities in Monze District. Sichiyanda is one such village in the Monze district where efforts are in progress. Projects in the village began in 2001 and the community worked together to dig a well with dedicated bucket and windlass.[24] Hygiene education is also taking place, where villagers are taught to keep areas clean by building dish racks and rubbish pits and ensuring that there are no stagnant pools of water where mosquitoes can breed.[24] In addition, 28 latrines have already been constructed with more underway.[24]

Such programmes have led to significant improvements in the lives of villages in rural Monze. The building of wells have led to time savings for women and children.[25] For women, much of this newly available time has been put to productive economic activities like basket weaving and pottery making for use and sale.[25] For children, it has led to increased attendance in schools.[25] In light of this, WaterAid has since put up a tender request for an additional 32 boreholes (necessary for the construction of wells) to be drilled in Monze.[26]

Milengeセルフサプライプロジェクト編集

While most of WaterAid’s projects have been subsidized, the Milenge Project stands out for being one that is self-supplied.[22] It has been possible to stimulate real demand in the district, and this means rural water supply upgrading can take place with no subsidy for materials. Wateraid is now working in four wards of Western Milenge on Self Supply,[27] and 16 masons (4 per ward) have already been trained, having attended two separate one-month courses at Mansa Trades Training Insititute.[28] Besides being trained technically, these masons are also trained to work together and on how to promote their services.[28] They speak to households independently, and some 95 well owners have since expressed interest in their services.[27] Moreover, considering the fact that these areas are some of the poorest in Zambia and that the rural population is on average poorer than those in other piloting countries, such a response is truly impressive.[28]

ウォーターエイドインド編集

WaterAid works closely with its partners in local communities to utilise low cost technologies to deliver sustainable water supply, sanitation and hygiene solutions to the poor in the economically less developed countries.[29] WaterAid's vision is of a world where everyone has access to safe water and sanitation.[30]

Since its presence in India from 1986, WaterAid India has been growing in its significance in providing assistance to the poor in both rural and urban areas.[31] Today, WaterAid covers over ten states (Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh), rendering their services to the communities that needed help most.[32]

インドでの役割編集

The main thrust of WaterAid India’s projects is to advocate the use of latrines and to provide hygiene education with training manuals to the poorer and less educated areas.[33] It aims to bring across the detrimental effects of poor hygiene; such as diseases, loss of efficiency and high expenses in the form of costly medicine.[33] WaterAid India hopes to inspire local communities to develop their own cost effective solutions to the existing problems.[33]

In addition, WaterAid India, with other partner organisations, came together to tackle the issue of having access to potable water in the coastal states of India.[34] The roots of this crisis are linked to development. Sustainable development has proved challenging for many of India’s coastal states, as they struggle to balance their delicate ecology against heavy economic demands and the desire for growth.[34] WaterAid India and its partners explored the feasibility of technological alternatives to the problem of salinity in the groundwater - for example, rainwater harvesting, desalination and dew harvesting - and looked towards establishing an area-specific strategy for ensuring access to a domestic water supply in coastal regions.[34]

実績と展望編集

WaterAid has achieved many other significant milestones since its inception. The WaterAid project in Kalmandhai, Tiruchirapalli city was declared the country's first 100% sanitised slum in 2002.[35] Khajapattai was recently announced as the seventh.[35] In 2009/10, nearly 240,000 people managed to have access to safe water and sanitation, through WaterAid supported projects.[35]

WaterAid India also plays a vital role in advising Indian policy makers to include low-cost latrines into existing sanitation subsidies in 1999, after two years of advocacy.[35] This exemplifies WaterAid India’s persuasive powers and intent of alleviating poverty in India. Since 2003, WaterAid India has shifted its focus to the poorer states in northern India where local communities there require great assistance.[36] In order to better meet the need of these communities, WaterAid India has shifted its head office to New Delhi.[36]

ウォーターエイドバングラデシュ編集

WaterAid started its work in Bangladesh in 1986. It has successfully collaborated with 21 organizations in Bangladesh up to now to alleviate the sufferings from scarce water supply and low sanitation standards in poverty-plagued villages.[37]

With WaterAid Bangladesh rendering their help in the technical field, The Village Education Resource Centre (VERC) introduced the community-led total sanitation (CLTS) model. It aims to educate villagers on the harmful effects that open defecation brings to the environment and to their health. In addition, the CLTS programme help to build toilets for the local communities so as to facilitate them in shifting to a more hygienic lifestyle. UNICEF recognized that the programme had been so impactful in Bangladesh that many organizations and countries had replicated it.[38]

In 2011, the additional number of people who could access to water and sanitation thanks to WaterAid’s programme is 259,000 and 536,000 respectively. WaterAid is currently working with Bangladesh government to build the National Sanitation Strategy, which would help them to reach universal access to sanitation by 2015. Recognizing WaterAid’s efforts and the change that they made in running the National Sanitation Campaign together with other NGOs, Bangladesh government presented the National Sanitation Award to WaterAid as a gesture of appreciation.[39]

トイレの設計と施工編集

WaterAid encouraged local villagers to design and construct better latrine for themselves.[40] This empowered people to be more involved and learn more about sanitation in the process. Furthermore, local participants could personalize it to fit their preferences and needs.

WaterAid also introduced a programme called "Naming and Shaming", in which anyone caught defecating in the open would have their names taken down and made known to the whole community.[41] Explaining why this works, Institute of Development Studies (University of Sussex) stated that it triggered people's pride and feelings so strongly that they were highly motivated to change, i.e. building their own toilets and stop open defecation.[42]

The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (Switzerland) stated that 49 out of 80 unions had attained 100% sanitation coverage.[43]

衛生教育編集

WaterAid brought across the message of sanitation and hygienic defecation to the young by collaborating with a local music-theatre performance troupe who performed various educational for children.[44]

However, WaterAid does face some difficulties: almost unable to seek support and donations from companies in Bangladesh to ensure a high hygienic level. Mr. Mohammed Sabur, the Director of WaterAid Bangladesh said that since labour was abundant, companies were not afraid of labour shortage should their employees fall sick. The only companies likely to support the programme were those with benefits in mind such as Unilever, who wanted to sell more soap.[45]

WaterAid Canada編集

WaterCan/EauVive was established as a registered Canadian charity in 1987 by Michael Lubbock to "helping the world's poorest people gain access to clean drinking water, basic sanitation and hygiene education".[46] It works in 37 countries — like Bangladesh, Kenya, Nicaragua, and Uganda — by partnering with local organizations to assist the poorest and most marginalized communities. WaterAid Canada implemented sanitation projects benefiting 2.2 million people and safe water projects benefiting 1.7 million people by 2014. The charity also organized 4,000 education sessions focused on menstrual hygiene in Bangladesh.[47] It receives funding through donations by individuals, organizations, and foundations and the Canadian International Development Agency.[48] In 2013, it became a member of the global federation WaterAid, and was named WaterAid Canada in mid-2014.[46]

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  2. ^ WaterAid - Where we work”. wateraid.org (2013年). 2013年7月27日閲覧。
  3. ^ a b Who we are - Our history”. wateraid.org (2013年). 2013年7月27日閲覧。
  4. ^ Wateraid named as Charity of the Year for 2003”. charitytimes.com (2010年). 2013年7月27日閲覧。
  5. ^ Britain's most Admired Charity 2006”. wateraid.org. 2011年10月2日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。 Template:Cite webの呼び出しエラー:引数 accessdate は必須です。
  6. ^ Stockholm Water Prize: Laureates”. SIWI. 2018年8月6日閲覧。
  7. ^ WaterAid - Clean water & sanitation for Africa, Asia & Central America”. wateraidamerica.org (2013年). 2013年7月27日閲覧。
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  9. ^ WaterAid Sverige”. wateraid.se (2013年). 2013年7月27日閲覧。
  10. ^ http://www.wateraid.org/uk/who-we-are/our-strategy
  11. ^ “Glastonbury 2016: Brian Blessed to voice WaterAid's 'Talking Toilets'”. The Independent. (2016年6月22日). https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/music/news/glastonbury-2016-brian-blessed-to-voice-wateraids-talking-toilets-a7095771.html 2016年11月13日閲覧。 
  12. ^ Coast Along for WaterAid”. Template:Cite webの呼び出しエラー:引数 accessdate は必須です。
  13. ^ Gordon Brown to walk for water charity”. bbc.co.uk (2010年8月17日). 2013年7月27日閲覧。
  14. ^ Former PM walks Fife Coast Path for charity”. news.stv.tv (2010年9月11日). 2013年7月27日閲覧。
  15. ^ March 22 is World Water Day”. waterlogic.us (2012年10月14日). 2013年7月27日閲覧。
  16. ^ Waterlogic Firewall Technology”. waterlogic.com (2011年6月1日). 2014年11月25日閲覧。
  17. ^ WaterAid America - Waterlogic announces new charity partnership with WaterAid”. wateraidamerica.org (24 February 2012). 2013年8月17日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。2013年7月27日閲覧。
  18. ^ WaterAid200 - a mountain walking challenge event from WaterAid”. wateraid200.org (2013年). 2013年7月27日閲覧。
  19. ^ WaterAid UK - Get involved - Find an event to join”. wateraid.org (2013年). 2013年7月27日閲覧。
  20. ^ WaterAid - Where we work - Zambia”. wateraid.org (2013年). 2013年7月27日閲覧。
  21. ^ WaterAid America - Zambia information sheet”. wateraidamerica.org (2013年). 2013年7月27日閲覧。
  22. ^ a b Zambia Country Programme Evaluation Summary”. wateraid.org (2013年). 2013年7月27日閲覧。
  23. ^ Changing Lives Challenge”. United Utilities. 2011年9月10日閲覧。
  24. ^ a b c WaterAid USA - WASHE project brings change”. wateraidamerica.org (2013年). 2013年7月27日閲覧。
  25. ^ a b c Community Perceived Impacts of Watsan Interventions”. 27th WEDC Conference (2001年). 2013年7月27日閲覧。
  26. ^ Tender to drill 61 boreholes in Lapula and southern provinces”. mpoto.info (2013年). 2013年7月27日閲覧。
  27. ^ a b Sutton, Sally (2009年). “Preliminary Report on Self Supply, Luapula Province, Zambia”. rural-water-supply.net. 2013年7月27日閲覧。
  28. ^ a b c Sutton, Sally (2010年). “Accelerating Self Supply – A Case Study from Zambia”. rural-water-supply.net. 2013年7月27日閲覧。
  29. ^ WaterAid International Site”. What we do and where we work. 2011年9月13日閲覧。
  30. ^ WaterAid International Site”. Vision and mission. 2011年9月14日閲覧。
  31. ^ WaterAid International Site”. India: WaterAid's programme work in India. 2011年9月14日閲覧。
  32. ^ WaterAid India Site”. About us: WaterAid in India. 2011年9月14日閲覧。
  33. ^ a b c WaterAid India Site”. What we do: How we work. 2011年9月13日閲覧。
  34. ^ a b c Water, water, everywhere, but not a drop to drink”. WaterAid UK Site. Template:Cite webの呼び出しエラー:引数 accessdate は必須です。
  35. ^ a b c d India: What has WaterAid achieved?”. WaterAid UK Site. 2011年9月14日閲覧。
  36. ^ a b WaterAid India Site”. WaterAid in India. 2011年9月14日閲覧。
  37. ^ WaterAid Bangladesh”. WaterAid. 2012年2月16日閲覧。
  38. ^ Case Study: Community-Led Total Sanitation in Nigeria”. UNICEF. 2012年2月16日閲覧。
  39. ^ What has WaterAid achieved?”. WaterAid. 2012年2月16日閲覧。
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  41. ^ Black and Fawcett (2008). The last taboo: opening the door on the global sanitation crisis. United Kingdom: Earthscan. pp. 95. ISBN 978-1-84407-544-7. 
  42. ^ Institute of Development Studies. “An end to open defecation?”. id21. University of Sussex. 2012年2月16日閲覧。
  43. ^ Water Supply & Sanitation Collaborative Council. “Success Stories On Sanitation With Critical Analysis”. Community-Led Total Sanitation. 2012年2月16日閲覧。
  44. ^ Pappas, Stephanie. “With 7 Billion People, World Has a Poop Problem”. LiveScience. 2012年2月16日閲覧。
  45. ^ Elliot, Larry (2007年11月25日). “Where death by water is part of daily life”. London: The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/business/2007/nov/26/economics.naturaldisasters 2012年2月16日閲覧。 
  46. ^ a b Our History”. WaterAid Canada. 2016年12月11日閲覧。
  47. ^ WaterAid Canada”. Charity Intelligence Canada. 2016年12月11日閲覧。
  48. ^ WaterCan”. TakingITGlobal (2015年). 2016年12月11日閲覧。

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