「YIVOユダヤ調査研究所」の版間の差分

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'''YIVO'''(イーヴォ)は[[1925年]]、[[ユダヤ教]]文化の一大中心地[[ヴィルノ]]において、[[マックス・ヴァインライヒ]]らにより'''イディッシュ科学研究所'''(ユダヤ学研究所) '''''Yiddisher Visnshaftlikher Institut''''' として設立され、[[ナチス]]の蛮行を逃れて[[1940年]]に[[アメリカ]]に移ってからは '''(YIVO)ユダヤ調査研究所''' '''Institute for Jewish Research''' を正式な名称とする組織である。'''YIVO'''という[[イニシャル]]によってよく知られている。
 
主にヨーロッパ東方の[[ユダヤ人]]([[アシュケナジム]]系)の[[イディッシュ語]]・[[イディッシュ文化]]の探求・研究・保存・振興のための機関ということになる。
 
また、もっとも有力なイディッシュ語の[[ヘブライ文字]]表記法(正書法、綴字法) [[:en:orthography]]('''「YIVO式」'''といわれる)を提唱し、またイディッシュ語の[[辞書編集]]纂) [[:en:lexicography|lexicography]]を行っている機関でもある。
 
原稿、稀覯本 rare books、日記などを保管している。ニューヨーク本部は100万以上の本を所有し、その他200万以上の保管物品がある。
 
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YIVO preserves manuscripts, rare books, diaries, etc. Its New York headquarters holds over a million books and more than two million other archival items. It also functions as a publisher of Yiddish-language books and of periodicals including ''[[:en:YIVO Bleter]]'' (founded 1931), ''[[:en:Yedies Fun YIVO]]'' (founded 1929), and ''Yiddishe Sprakh" (founded 1941). They are also responsible for such English-language publications as the ''[[:en:YIVO Annual of Jewish Social Studies]]'' (founded 1946). -->
'''YIVO''', founded in [[1925]] as the ('''Yiddish Scientific Institute'''), later renamed as the , but almost always known by its initials, is the most authoritative source for [[orthography]], [[lexicography]], etc. for the [[Yiddish language]].
 
YIVO preserves manuscripts, rare books, diaries, etc. Its New York headquarters holds over a million books and more than two million other archival items. It also functions as a publisher of Yiddish-language books and of periodicals including ''[[YIVO Bleter]]'' (founded 1931), ''[[Yedies Fun YIVO]]'' (founded 1929), and ''Yiddishe Sprakh" (founded 1941). They are also responsible for such English-language publications as the ''[[YIVO Annual of Jewish Social Studies]]'' (founded 1946).
 
YIVO was initially proposed by Yiddish [[linguistics|linguist]] and writer [[Nochum Shtif]] (1879&ndash;1933). He characterized his advocacy of Yiddish as "realistic" [[Jew]]ish [[nationalism]], contrasted to the "visionary" [[Modern Hebrew|Hebraists]] and the "self-hating" [[assimilation]]ists who adopted [[Russian language|Russian]] or [[Polish language|Polish]]. Other key founders included [[philology|philologist]] and theater director [[Max Weinreich]] (1894&ndash;1969) and historian [[Elias Tcherikover]] (1881&ndash;1943). [Liptzin, 1972, 127-130, 133]
 
Founded at a conference in [[Berlin]], but headquartered in [[Vilna]], the early YIVO also had branches in Berlin, [[Warsaw]] and [[New York City]]. Over the next decade, smaller groups arose in many of the other countries with [[Ashkenazi]]c Jewish populations.
 
In YIVO's first decades, Tcherikover headed the historical research section, which also included [[Shimon Dubnow]], [[Saul Ginsburg]], [[Abraham Menes]], and [[Jacob Shatzky]]; [[Leibush Lehrer]] (1887&ndash;1964) headed a section including psychologists and educators [[Abraham Golomb]], [[H.S. Kasdan]], and [[A.A. Roback]]; [[Jacob Leshchinsky]] (1876&ndash;1966) headed a section of economists and demographers [[Ben-Adir]], [[Liebman Hersh]], and [[Moshe Shalit]]; Weinreich's language and literature section included [[J.L. Cahan]], [[Alexander Harkavy]], [[Judah A. Joffe]], [[Selig Kalmanovitch]], [[Shmuel Niger]], [[Noah Prilutzky]], and [[Zalman Reisen]]. [Liptzin, 1972, 130, 133]
 
The [[Nazi]] advance into Eastern Europe resulted in the moving of operations to New York, with second important center in [[Buenos Aires]], [[Argentina]]. As it happened, the Nazis, for their own reasons, carried the bulk of YIVO's archives to Berlin, where the papers survived the war intact, and eventually ended up in New York. Also, as fortune had it, all four directors of YIVO's research sections either were in the Americas when the European war broke out, or were able to make their way there. [Liptzin, 1972, 3, 133]
 
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YIVO was initially proposed by Yiddish [[linguistics|linguist]] and writer [[:en:Nochum Shtif]] (1879&ndash;1933). He characterized his advocacy of Yiddish as "realistic" [[Jew]]ish [[nationalism]], contrasted to the "visionary" [[Modern Hebrew|Hebraists]] and the "self-hating" [[assimilation]]ists who adopted [[Russian language|Russian]] or [[Polish language|Polish]]. Other key founders included [[philology|philologist]] and theater director [[Max Weinreich]] (1894&ndash;1969) and historian [[:en:Elias Tcherikover]] (1881&ndash;1943). [Liptzin, 1972, 127-130, 133]-->
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Founded at a conference in [[Berlin]], but headquartered in [[Vilna]], the early YIVO also had branches in Berlin, [[Warsaw]] and [[New York City]]. Over the next decade, smaller groups arose in many of the other countries with [[Ashkenazi]]c Jewish populations. -->
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In YIVO's first decades, Tcherikover headed the historical research section, which also included [[:en:Shimon Dubnow]], [[:en:Saul Ginsburg]], [[:en:Abraham Menes]], and [[:en:Jacob Shatzky]]; [[:en:Leibush Lehrer]] (1887&ndash;1964) headed a section including psychologists and educators [[:en:Abraham Golomb]], [[:en:H.S. Kasdan]], and [[:en:A.A. Roback]]; [[:en:Jacob Leshchinsky]] (1876&ndash;1966) headed a section of economists and demographers [[:en:Ben-Adir]], [[:en:Liebman Hersh]], and [[:en:Moshe Shalit]]; Weinreich's language and literature section included [[:en:J.L. Cahan]], [[:en:Alexander Harkavy]], [[:en:Judah A. Joffe]], [[:en:Selig Kalmanovitch]], [[:en:Shmuel Niger]], [[:en:Noah Prilutzky]], and [[:en:Zalman Reisen]]. [Liptzin, 1972, 130, 133]-->
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The [[Nazi]] advance into Eastern Europe resulted in the moving of operations to New York, with second important center in [[Buenos Aires]], [[Argentina]]. As it happened, the Nazis, for their own reasons, carried the bulk of YIVO's archives to Berlin, where the papers survived the war intact, and eventually ended up in New York. Also, as fortune had it, all four directors of YIVO's research sections either were in the Americas when the European war broke out, or were able to make their way there. [Liptzin, 1972, 3, 133]-->
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A series of volumes of YIVO's ''Groiser Verterbukh Fun Der Yiddisher Shprakh'' (''Great Dictionary of the Yiddish Language'') appeared over the years&mdash;volume 1, 1961; volume 2, 1966; volume 3, 1971; volume 4, 1980. The project, founded in New York, was officially moved to [[Jerusalem]], but seems to have petered out. [Prager, 1997]
 
翻訳の協力者を求めています ('_')
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[[Category:出版社|YIVO]]
[[Category:アメリカ合衆国|YIVO]]
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[[de:Yiddisher Visnshaftlikher Institut]]
[[en:YIVO]]
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