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'''Dialogue''' (sometimes spelled '''dialog''' in [[American English]]<ref>See entry on "dialogue (n)" in the Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed.</ref>) is a [[literature|literary]] and [[theatrical]] form consisting of a written or spoken [[conversation]]al exchange between two or more people.
 
Its chief historical origins as [[narrative]], [[philosophy|philosophical]] or [[didactic]] device are to be found in [[ancient Greek literature|classical Greek]] and [[Indian literature]], in particular in the ancient art of [[rhetoric]].
 
Having lost touch almost entirely in the 19th century with its underpinnings in rhetoric, the notion of dialogue emerged transformed in the work of [[cultural criticism|cultural critics]] such as [[Mikhail Bakhtin]] and [[Paulo Freire]], [[theology|theologians]] such as [[Martin Buber]], as an [[existentialism|existential]] palliative to counter atomization and [[social alienation]] in mass [[industrial society]].
 
==As literary and philosophical device==
===Antiquity and the middle ages===
Dialogue as a genre in the [[Middle East]] and [[Asia]] dates back to the year 1433 in japan [[Sumerian language|Sumerian]] [[Sumerian disputations|disputation]]s preserved in copies from the late third millennium BC<ref>Reinink, G. J., and H. L. J. Vanstiphout. 1991. Dispute Poems and Dialogues in the Ancient and Mediaeval Near East: Forms and Types of Literary Debates in Semitic and Related Literatures. Leuven: Department Oriëntalistiek.</ref> and to [[Rigvedic dialogue hymns]] and to the ''[[Mahabharata]]''.
 
Literary historians commonly suppose that in the West [[Plato]] (c. 437 BC – c. 347 BC) introduced the systematic use of dialogue as an independent literary form: they point to his earliest experiment with the genre in the ''Laches''. The Platonic dialogue, however, had its foundations in the ''mime'', which the [[Sicily|Sicilian]] poets [[Sophron]] and [[Epicharmus]] had cultivated half a century earlier. These works, admired and imitated by Plato, have not survived but scholars imagine them as little plays, usually presented with only two performers. The [[Dorian Greeks|''Mimes'']] of [[Herodas]] give us some idea of their scope.
 
Plato further simplified the form and reduced it to pure [[Logical argument|argumentative]] conversation, while leaving intact the amusing element of [[fictional character|character]]-drawing. He must have begun this about the year 405 BC, and by 400 he had perfected the dialogue, especially in the cycle directly inspired by the death of [[Socrates]], and is considered a master of the genre. All his philosophical writings, except the ''[[Apology (Plato)|Apology]]'', use this form.
 
Following Plato, the dialogue became a major literary genre in antiquity, and several important works both in Latin and in Greek were written. Soon after Plato, [[Xenophon]] wrote his own ''[[Symposium (Xenophon dialogue)|Symposium]]''; also, Aristotle is said to have written several philosophical dialogues in Plato's style (none of which have survived).
 
===Modern period to the present===
Two French writers of eminence borrowed the title of Lucian’s most famous collection; both [[Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle|Fontenelle]] (1683) and [[François Fénelon|Fénelon]] (1712) prepared ''Dialogues des morts'' ("Dialogues of the Dead"). Contemporaneously, in 1688, the French philosopher [[Nicolas Malebranche]] published his ''Dialogues on Metaphysics and Religion'', thus contributing to the genre's revival in philosophic circles. In English non-dramatic literature the dialogue did not see extensive use until [[George Berkeley|Berkeley]] employed it, in 1713, for his treatise, ''[[Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous]]''. [[Walter Savage Landor|Landor]]’s ''[[Imaginary Conversations]]'' (1821–1828) formed the most famous English example of dialogue in the 19th century, although the dialogues of [[Arthur Helps|Sir Arthur Helps]] also claim attention and make himself more popular.
 
In Germany, [[Christoph Martin Wieland|Wieland]] adopted this form for several important satirical works published between 1780 and 1799. In Spanish literature, the ''Dialogues'' of [[Juan de Valdés|Valdés]] (1528) and those on ''Painting'' (1633) by [[Vincenzo Carducci]] are celebrated. Italian writers of collections of dialogues, following Plato's model, include [[Torquato Tasso]] (1586), [[Galileo Galilei|Galileo]] (1632), [[Ferdinando Galiani|Galiani]] (1770), [[Giacomo Leopardi|Leopardi]] (1825), and a host of others.
 
More recently, the French returned to the original application of dialogue. The inventions of "[[Sibylle Gabrielle Marie Antoinette Riqueti de Mirabeau|Gyp]]", of [[Henri Léon Emile Lavedan|Henri Lavedan]], and of others, which tell a mundane [[anecdote]] wittily and maliciously in conversation, would probably present a close analogy to the lost mimes of the early Sicilian poets. This kind of dialogue also appeared in English, exemplified by [[F. Anstey|Anstey Guthrie]], but these dialogues seem to have found less of a popular following among the English than their counterparts written by French authors.
 
The [[Platonic dialogue]], as a distinct genre which features Socrates as a speaker and one or more interlocutors discussing some philosophical question, experienced something of a rebirth in the 20th century. Authors who have recently employed it include [[George Santayana]], in his eminent ''Dialogues in Limbo'' (1926, 2nd ed. 1948; this work also includes such historical figures as [[Alcibiades]], [[Aristippus]], [[Avicenna]], [[Democritus]], and [[Dionysius the Younger]] as speakers), and [[Iris Murdoch]], who included not only Socrates and Alcibiades as interlocutors in her work ''Acastos: Two Platonic Dialogues'' (1986), but featured a young Plato himself as well.
 
The philosophic dialogue, with or without Socrates as a character, continues to be used on occasion by philosophers when attempting to write engaging, literary works of philosophy which attempt to capture the subtle nuance and lively give-and-take of discourse as it actually takes place in intellectual conversation.
 
''Compare: [[Closet drama]]''
 
==As theological and social device==
[[Martin Buber]] assigns dialogue a pivotal position in his [[theology]]. His most influential work is titled ''[[I and Thou]]''. Buber cherishes and promotes throughout his work dialogue not as some purposive attempt to reach conclusions or express mere points of view, but as the very prerequisite of authentic relationship between man and man, and between man and [[God]]. His concern with the profound nature of true dialogue has resulted in what is known as the [[philosophy of dialogue]].
 
The [[Second Vatican Council]] placed a major emphasis on dialogue with the World. Most of the Council's documents involve some kind of dialogue : dialogue with other religions ([[Nostra Aetate]]), dialogue with other Christians ([[Unitatis Redintegratio]]), dialogue with modern society ([[Gaudium et Spes]]) and dialogue with political authorities ([[Dignitatis Humanae]]).
 
The [[physicist]] [[David Bohm]] originated a related form of dialogue where a group of people talk together in order to explore their assumptions of thinking, meaning, communication, and social effects. This group consists of ten to thirty people who meet for a few hours regularly or a few continuous days. Dialoguers agree to leave behind debate tactics that attempt to convince and, instead, talk from their own experience on subjects that are improvised on the spot. People form their own dialogue groups that usually are offered for free of charge. There exists an international online dialogue list server group, facilitated by Don Factor, co-author of a paper called "Dialogue - A Proposal," with David Bohm and Peter Garrett.<ref>[http://www.david-bohm.org/mailman/admin/bohm_dialogue David-Bohm.org]</ref>
 
The [[Russians|Russian]] philosopher and [[semiotician]]<ref>Maranhão 1990, p.197</ref> [[Mikhail Bakhtin]]’s theory of ''dialogue'' emphasized the power of discourse to increase understanding of multiple perspectives and create myriad possibilities. Bakhtin held that relationships and connections exist among all living beings, and that dialogue creates a new understanding of a situation that demands change.{{Citation needed|date=June 2007}} In his influential works, Bakhtin provided a [[linguistics|linguistic]] methodology to define the dialogue, its nature and meaning:<ref>Maranhão 1990, p.51</ref>
<blockquote>''Dialogic relations'' have a specific nature: they can be reduced neither to the purely [[logical]] (even if dialectical) nor to the purely linguistic ([[Composition (language)|compositional]]-[[Syntax|syntactic]]) They are possible only between complete [[utterance]]s of various speaking subjects... Where there is no word and no [[language]], there can be no dialogic relations; they cannot exist among objects or logical quantities (concepts, judgments, and so forth). Dialogic relations presuppose a language, but they do not reside within the system of language. They are impossible among elements of a language.<ref>Bakhtin 1986, p.117</ref></blockquote>
 
The [[Brazil]]ian educationalist [[Paulo Freire]], known for developing popular education, advanced dialogue as a type of pedagogy. Freire held that dialogued communication allowed students and teachers to learn from one another in an environment characterized by respect and equality. A great advocate for oppressed peoples, Freire was concerned with praxis—action that is informed and linked to people’s values. Dialogued pedagogy was not only about deepening understanding; it was also about making positive changes in the world: to make it better.
 
Today, dialogue is used in classrooms, community centers, corporations, federal agencies, and other settings to enable people, usually in small groups, to share their perspectives and experiences about difficult issues. It is used to help people resolve long-standing conflicts and to build deeper understanding of contentious issues. Dialogue is not about judging, weighing, or making decisions, but about understanding and learning. Dialogue dispels stereotypes, builds trust, and enables people to be open to perspectives that are very different from their own.
 
In the past two decades, a rapidly-growing movement for dialogue has been developing. The website of the [[National Coalition for Dialogue and Deliberation]],<ref>[http://www.thataway.org Thataway.org]</ref> serves as a hub for dialogue (and deliberation) facilitators, conveners, and trainers and houses thousands of resources on these communication methodologies.
 
Groups such as [[Worldwide Marriage Encounter]] and [[Retrouvaille]] use dialogue as a communication tool for married couples. Both groups teach a dialogue method that helps couples learn more about each other in non-threatening postures, which helps to foster growth in the married relationship.
 
Dialogue is a delicate process. Many obstacles inhibit dialogue and favor more confrontational communication forms such as discussion and debate. Common obstacles including fear, the display or exercise of power, mistrust, external influences, distractions, and poor communication conditions can all prevent dialogue from emerging.<ref>[http://www.emotionalcompetency.com/dialogue.htm Emotional Competency web page on dialogue]</ref>
 
===Egalitarian dialogue===
{{main|Egalitarian dialogue}}
Egalitarian dialogue is a form of discussion that takes place when different contributions are considered in terms of the validity of the arguments, rather than assessing them according to the power positions of those who advocate them.
 
===Structured dialogue===
Structured dialogue represents a class of dialogue practices developed as a means of orienting the dialogic discourse toward problem understanding and consensual action. Whereas most traditional dialogue practices are unstructured or semi-structured, such conversational modes have been observed as insufficient for the coordination of multiple perspectives in a problem area. A disciplined form of dialogue, where participants agree to follow a framework or facilitation, enables groups to address complex problems shared in common.
 
[[Alexander Christakis|Aleco Christakis]] ([[Structured dialogue design|Structured Dialogic Design]]) and [[John N. Warfield]] (Science of Generic Design) were two of the leading developers of this school of dialogue, which was practiced for over 20 years as Interactive Management. The rationale for engaging structured dialogue follows the observation that a rigorous bottom-up democratic form of dialogue must be structured to ensure that a sufficient variety of stakeholders represents the problem system of concern, and that their voices and contributions are equally balanced in the dialogic process.
 
Today, structured dialogue is being employed by facilitated teams for peacemaking (e.g., [[Civil Society Dialogue project in Cyprus]], Act Beyond Borders project in the Middle East,<ref>http://www.ActBeyond Borders.net</ref>), global indigenous community development{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}}, government and social policy formulation{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}}, strategic management{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}}, health care{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}}, and other complex domains{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}}.
 
In one deployment, structured dialogue is (according to a European Union definition) "a means of mutual communication between governments and administrations including [[European Institution|EU institutions]] and young people. The aim is to get young people’s contribution towards the formulation of policies relevant to young peoples lives."<ref>[http://www.youthweek.magusine.net/spip.php?article46 Definition of structured dialogue focused on youth matters]</ref> The application of structured dialogue requires one to differentiate the meanings of discussion and deliberation.
 
==See also==
*[[Bohm Dialogue]]
*[[Online chat|Chat]]
*[[Conversation]]
*[[Deliberation]]
*[[Dialogue Among Civilizations]]
*[[Dialogue in writing]]
*[[Facilitation]]
*[[Intercultural]] Dialogue
*[[Interfaith dialogue]]
*[[Intersubjectivity]]
*[[Philosophy of dialogue]]
*[[Small talk (phatic communication)|Small talk]]
*[[Speech communication]]
 
==Notes==
{{reflist}}
 
==References==
*Bakhtin, M. M. (1986) ''Speech Genres and Other Late Essays''. Trans. by Vern W. McGee. Austin, Tx: University of Texas Press.
*Maranhão, Tullio (1990) ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=T2b3Tgxc5bEC The Interpretation of Dialogue]'' University of Chicago Press ISBN 0-226-50433-6
*{{1911}}
* E. Di Nuoscio, "Epistemologia del dialogo. Una difesa filosofica del confronto pacifico tra culture", Carocci, Roma, 2011
 
==External links==
{{wiktionary}}
* [http://www.thataway.org/ National Coalition for Dialogue and Deliberation]
* [http://www.infed.org/biblio/b-dialog.htm Smith, M. K. (2001) ''Dialogue and conversation'', the encyclopaedia of informal education]
* [http://www.irdialogue.org The Journal of Inter-Religious Dialogue]
 
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