「第2軍団パルティカ」の版間の差分

編集の要約なし
===アレクサンドロス・セウェルスとマクシミヌスの時代===
[[213年]]にはアレクサンドロス・セウェルスの麾下で[[ササン朝ペルシア]]と交戦、のちに皇帝と[[ゲルマニア属州]]に帰還。[[235年]]にアレクサンドロスが暗殺された頃には[[マインツ|モグンティアクム]]に赴任していた。その後の権力闘争では軍団は[[マクシミヌス・トラクス]]の側につくが、[[元老院]]は[[238年]]にマクシミヌスを国家の敵として断罪、[[ゴルティアヌス3世]]を皇帝として認めた。これに対してマクシミヌスは軍団を率いてローマへ進軍、その中に第2軍団パルティカもいた。この間第2軍団は司令官の価値を値踏みした結果、マクシミヌスを支持し続けるのは良くないと判断。そしてローマの元老院にたどり着く前にマクシミヌスを殺してしまう。このような一連の第2軍団の動きは[[3世紀]]のローマ軍団が行った政治的な動きの典型的な例として記憶されている。この功績に対して第2軍団は国家の敵を支持した事への恩赦が与えられ、アルバン山脈の駐屯地へ戻る事を許された。
 
それから数十年間軍団は一部の属州で援軍のような働きをしており、[[3世紀]]の絶え間ない玉座をかけた戦いでは先兵としてあり続けた。[[ガッリエヌス]]は軍団に対して「クィンキエス・フィレリス・クィンキエス・ピア(V Fidelis V Pia-『五たび忠実で五たび誠実な軍団』の意)」と「セクシエス・フィデリス・セクシエス・ピア(VI Fidelis VI Pia - 『六たび忠実で六たび誠実な軍団』の意)の称号を授けられている。
 
この称号が授けられた時、軍団はどこに駐在していたのかはわかってはいない。<!-- ここから訳が怪しいです -->考えうる他の条件が同じだとすると、[[ウァレリアヌス]]と息子であり共同統治者の[[ガッリエヌス]]は[[250年代]]末にはこの軍団を東に連れて行く考えだったのかもしれない。もしそうなら軍団は[[シャープール1世]]によって敗北、ウァレリヌスとともに捕囚の憂き目に巻き込まれていただろう。しかし[[マクリアヌス]]の反乱や[[ゼノビア]]の[[パルミア]]の半独立勢力など、引き込まれるであろう次々と迫る危険を第2軍団が回避できたという事、またはガッリエヌスから敬意ある継承を贈られたという事から察すると、軍団は父親のウァレリアヌスではなく、ガッリエヌスの指揮下にあったものと考えられる。しかしながら、可能性は低いものの、叛乱者マクリアヌスの指揮下にあって敗北、ガッリエヌスによって赦され帝国内に戻っていた可能性も否定できない。
<!-- ==Parthian campaign and Castra Albana (197-4th century)=
 
===Under Severus Alexander and Maximinus===
In 231, the legion fought under [[Alexander Severus]] against the [[Sassanid Empire]], and returned with the emperor to the German provinces. It was at ''Moguntiacum'' (modern [[Mainz]]), when Alexander was assassinated in 235. In the following fight for the power, the II ''Parthica'' sided with [[Maximinus Thrax]]. In 238, the [[Roman senate]] declared Maximinus ''persona non grata'' and nominated [[Gordian III]] as emperor. Maximinus then marched on Rome to fight for his rights, taking the II ''Parthica'', among other legions, with him. What happened next is a good example of the political power of the legions in the 3rd century. The II ''Parthica'' weighted the chances of its commander and, concluding that supporting him was not a good move, they killed Maximinus before he could harass the senate. As a reward, they were pardoned for supporting a public enemy and allowed to return to their base and families in the Alban mountains. -->
 
 
<!--===Whittling away===
In the next decades they were used as reinforcements in several provinces within the empire and continued to be used as pawns in the constant battles for the imperial throne of the 3rd century. Emperor [[Gallienus]] (253-268) awarded the legion with the titles ''V Fidelis V Pia'' and ''VI Fidelis VI Pia'' (respectively, "Five" and "Six times loyal and faithful").
 
Where the legion was based when it received these titles from Gallienus is uncertain. 「Other things being equal one would have thought that [[Valerian (emperor)|Valerian]], father and co-regent with Gallienus, would have wanted to take it to the east with him in the late 250s」 and that it would have been involved in his defeat and capture by King [[Shapur I|Sapor]]of the Persians at Edessa in 260. Since it continued as a functioning unit and avoided the subsequent pit-falls of over-identification with the rebellion of the [[Macrianii]] and [[Palmyra]]'s bid for autonomy under [[Zenobia]], and given the honorific title appearing on coins of Gallienus, it is probable that it was under the command of Gallienus, not his father. However unlikely, it is possible that it would have returned to Europe as part of the army of the Macrianii and was forgiven by Gallienus after the latter were defeated. Besides an inscription from Macedonia giving thanks to the god Jupiter for the safety and well-being, "pro salute et incolumitate," of Gallienus, and an inscription dated 242 CE from Rome giving thanks to the legion's "Genius Gordiana and to Fortuna" for keeping safe emperor Gordian and his spouse, there is little known regarding its fortunes in this period.<ref name=piacoins />
-->
 
[[category: ローマ軍団|02_はるていか]]