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今日、ロマ語は42の欧州諸国で小集団によって話されている。イギリスの[[マンチェスター大学]]は、多くが消滅の危機下にあるロマ語方言の転写プロジェクトに取り組んでいる。
 
==Phonology==
The Romani sound system is not highly unusual among European languages. Its most marked features are a three-way contrast between unvoiced, voiced, and aspirated stops: ''p t k č'', ''b d g dž'', and ''ph th kh čh'',<ref name="m_tss">{{Harvcoltxt|Matras|2006|loc=The sound system}}</ref> and the presence in some dialects of a second rhotic ''ř'', realized as uvular [ʀ], a long trill [r:], or retroflex [ɽ] or [ɻ].<ref name="m_tss" />
 
The following is the core sound inventory of Romani. Phonemes in parentheses are only found in some dialects:
{{col-begin}}
{{col-2}}
{| class="wikitable" style=text-align:center
|-style="font-size: 90%;"
|+Romani consonants<ref name="m_tss" />
!
!colspan=2| [[Labial consonant|Labial]]
!colspan=2| [[Alveolar consonant|Alveolar]]
!colspan=2| [[Postalveolar consonant|Post-al.]]<br>/[[Palatal consonant|Palatal]]
!colspan=2| [[Velar consonant|Velar]]
!colspan=2| [[Glottal consonant|Glottal]]
|-
! <small>[[Nasal consonant|Nasal]]</small>
|width=20px style="border-right: 0;"| ||width=20px style="border-left: 0;"|{{IPAlink|m}}
|width=20px style="border-right: 0;"| ||width=20px style="border-left: 0;"|{{IPAlink|n}}
|colspan=2|
|colspan=2|
|colspan=2|
|-
! <small>[[Stop consonant|Stop]]</small>
|style="border-right: 0;"|{{IPAlink|p}}<br>pʰ||style="border-left: 0;"|{{IPAlink|b}}<br>&nbsp;
|style="border-right: 0;"|{{IPAlink|t}}<br>tʰ||style="border-left: 0;"|{{IPAlink|d}}<br>&nbsp;
|colspan=2|
|width=20px style="border-right: 0;"|{{IPAlink|k}}<br>kʰ||width=20px style="border-left: 0;"|{{IPAlink|g}}<br>&nbsp;
|colspan=2|
|-
! <small>[[Affricate consonant|Affricate]]</small>
|colspan=2|
|style="border-right: 0;"|{{IPAlink|ts}}<br>&nbsp;||style="border-left: 0;"|
|width=20px style="border-right: 0;"|{{IPAlink|tʃ}}<br>tʃʰ||width=20px style="border-left: 0;"|{{IPAlink|dʒ}}<br>&nbsp;
|colspan=2|
|colspan=2|
|-
! <small>[[Fricative consonant|Fricative]]</small>
|style="border-right: 0;"|{{IPAlink|f}}||style="border-left: 0;"|{{IPAlink|v}}
|style="border-right: 0;"|{{IPAlink|s}}||style="border-left: 0;"|{{IPAlink|z}}
|style="border-right: 0;"|{{IPAlink|ʃ}}||style="border-left: 0;"|({{IPAlink|ʒ}})
|style="border-right: 0;"|{{IPAlink|x}}||width=20px style="border-left: 0;"|
|width=20px style="border-right: 0;"|{{IPAlink|h}}||width=20px style="border-left: 0;"|
|-
! <small>[[Approximant consonant|Approximant]]</small>
|colspan=2|
|style="border-right: 0;"| ||style="border-left: 0;"|{{IPAlink|l}}
|style="border-right: 0;"| ||style="border-left: 0;"|{{IPAlink|j}}
|colspan=2|
|colspan=2|
|-
! <small>[[Rhotic consonant|Rhotic]]</small>
|colspan=2|
|style="border-right: 0;"| ||style="border-left: 0;"|{{IPAlink|r}}
|colspan=2|
|colspan=2|
|colspan=2|
|}
 
{{col-2}}
 
{| class="wikitable"
|+The vowels of Romani<ref name="m_tss" />
! &nbsp;
! [[Front vowel|Front]]
! [[Central vowel|Central]]
! [[Back vowel|Back]]
|- align=center
![[Close vowel|Close]]
|{{IPA|i}} || || {{IPA|u}}
|- align=center
! [[Mid vowel|Mid]]
| {{IPA|e}} || || {{IPA|o}}
|- align=center
! [[Open vowel|Open]]
| || {{IPA|a}} ||
|}
 
{{col-end}}
Eastern and Southeastern European Romani dialects commonly have palatalized consonants, either distinctive or allophonic.<ref name="m_tss" /> Some dialects add the central vowel ''ə'' or ''ɨ''.<ref name="m_tss" /> Vowel length is often distinctive in Western European Romani dialects.<ref name="m_tss" /> Loans from contact languages often allow other non-native phonemes.<ref name="m_tss" />
 
Conservative dialects of Romani have final stress, with the exception of some unstressed affixes (e.g. the vocative ending, the case endings added on to the accusative noun, and the remoteness tense marker).<ref name="m_tss" /> Central and western European dialects often have shifted stress earlier in the word.<ref name="m_tss" />
 
At the end of the word, voiced consonants become voiceless and aspirated ones lose aspiration. However, both are kept written as voiced / aspirated one.<ref name="mluvnice"/> Examples:
{| class="wikitable"
|-
! scope="col" | written form
! scope="col" | pronunciation
! scope="col" | meaning
|-
|'''gad'''
|[gat]
|shirt
|-
|'''gada'''
|[gada]
|shirts
|-
|'''ačh'''!
|[at͡ʃ]
|stop!
|-
|'''ačhel'''
|[at͡ʃʰel]
|(he, she) stops
|}
 
==参考文献==
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