「系統DNA検査」の版間の差分

m
編集の要約なし
(未訳部分を原文で記載)
タグ: サイズの大幅な増減
m
 
==== mtDNAのニュース ====
mtDNA試験は、2012年9月に[[レスター大学]] 考古学者たちが&nbsp;[[リチャード3世 (イングランド王)|リチャード3世]]の遺骸を鑑定するために用いられた。<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.dnacenter.com/blog/dna-tests-prove-that-the-body-found-under-a-parking-lot-belongs-to-king-richard-iii-but-was-he-truly-a-hunchback/ |title=DNA Tests prove that the body found under a parking lot belongs to King Richard III; but was he truly a "hunchback?" |publisher=DNA Diagnostics Center |date=7 February 2013 |publisherdeadurl=DNAyes Diagnostics Center|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20141103225418/http://www.dnacenter.com/blog/dna-tests-prove-that-the-body-found-under-a-parking-lot-belongs-to-king-richard-iii-but-was-he-truly-a-hunchback/ |archivedate=3 November 2014|deadurl=yes |df=dmy | accessdate = June 10, 2018}}</ref>
 
=== Y染色体(Y-DNA)検査 ===
Y染色体はヒト染色体の23番目の対の1つである。Y染色体は男性のみが持ち、女性は23番目の対にX染色体を2つ持つ。Y染色体は父親から息子へほとんど変化せず引き継がれるため、Y染色体(Y-DNA)を用いて男性の父系の祖先を追うことができる。<ref name=":1">{{harvtxt|Bettinger|2016|p=30}}</ref>&nbsp;ある人の検査結果は別の人の結果と比較され、二人が共有する[[最も近いの共通祖先]](Most Recent Common Ancestor, MRCA)がいた年代を決定する。もし検査結果が非常に近ければ、系統的に有意な関係があるといえる。<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.smgf.org/pages/yinterpretation.jspx |title=Matching Y-Chromosome DNA Results|accessdate=2011-06-15| work=Molecular Genealogy| publisher=Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation| accessdate=2011-06-15 |deadurl=unfit |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150503170935/http://www.smgf.org/pages/yinterpretation.jspx |archivedate=3 May 2015|deadurl=unfit }}CS1 maint: Unfit url ([<//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:CS1_maint:_Unfit_urlref> link])surname project&nbsp;ではY染色体がマッチした多くの人が共通の祖先を見つけるために協力している。
[[Category:CS1 maint: Unfit url]]</ref> surname project&nbsp;ではY染色体がマッチした多くの人が共通の祖先を見つけるために協力している。
 
自分の父系の先祖を特定したい女性は、父や兄弟、父方の叔父や祖父、父方のいとこに検査を受けてもらうことができる。
 
==== 民族推定 ====
多くの企業は民族と地域のパーセンテージを提供する。一般的に世界は約20~25の地域に分けられ、それぞれから引き継いだDNAの割合の推定値が示される。これは大規模な人口集団に対して検査された常染色体DNAマーカーの頻度と比較することで行われる。 この種のテストの信頼性は、人口の大きさ、検査するマーカーの数、検査したSNPの持つ系統情報の質、そして検査を受けた人の混血の度合いによって決まる。初期の民族推定は雑で不正確なものがあったが、正確性は大きく改善している。 通常、大陸レベルの結果は正確であるが、それ以上の特定は間違っていることもある。 例えば、ヨーロッパ人はスカンジナビア人の割合が大げさに示されることがある。<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://dna-explained.com/2016/02/10/ethnicity-testing-a-conundrum/|title=Ethnicity Testing – A Conundrum|date=10 February 2016 | accessdate = June 10, 2018}}</ref> 検査企業は民族推定の定期的なアップデートをおこない、推定結果を更新している。
[[Category:出典を必要とする記事/2018年4月]]
 
===Using DNA test results===
{{Main|Genetic genealogy}}
====Ethnicity estimates====
Many companies offer a percentage breakdown by ethnicity or region. Generally the world is specified into about 20–25 regions, and the approximate percentage of DNA inherited from each is stated. This is usually done by comparing the frequency of each [[Autosome|Autosomal DNA]] marker tested to many population groups.<ref name=":0" /> The reliability of this type of test is dependent on comparative population size, the number of markers tested, the ancestry informative value of the SNPs tested, and the degree of admixture in the person tested. Earlier ethnicity estimates were often wildly inaccurate, but their accuracies have since improved greatly.{{Citation needed|date=April 2018}} Usually the results at the continental level are accurate, but more specific assertions of the test may turn out to be incorrect. For example, Europeans often receive an exaggerated proportion of Scandinavian.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://dna-explained.com/2016/02/10/ethnicity-testing-a-conundrum/|title=Ethnicity Testing – A Conundrum|date=10 February 2016|publisher=}}</ref> Testing companies will often regularly update their ethnicity estimate, changing an individual's ethnicity estimate.
 
==Audience==
====Native American ancestry====
{{further|Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas}}
The [[pre-columbian]] indigenous people of the United States are called "Native Americans" in American English.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/native%2520american|title=Native American {{!}} Definition of Native American by Merriam-Webster|last=|first=|date=|website=www.merriam-webster.com|publisher=|access-date=2016-10-04}}</ref> Autosomal testing, Y-DNA, and mtDNA testing can be conducted to determine the ancestry of [[Native Americans in the United States|Native Americans]]. A mitochondrial Haplogroup determination test based on mutations in [[Hypervariable Region]] 1 and 2 may establish whether a person's direct female line belongs to one of the canonical Native American Haplogroups, [[Haplogroup A (mtDNA)|A]], [[Haplogroup B (mtDNA)|B]], [[Haplogroup C (mtDNA)|C]], [[Haplogroup D (mtDNA)|D]] or [[Haplogroup X (mtDNA)|X]]. The vast majority of Native American individuals belong to one of the five identified [[mtDNA]] [[Haplogroup]]s. Thus, being in one of those groups provides evidence of potential Native American descent. However, DNA ethnicity results cannot be used as a substitute for legal documentation.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.ancestry.co.uk/dna/legal/faq|title=AncestryDNA FAQ|website=www.ancestry.co.uk | accessdate = June 10, 2018}}</ref> [[Tribe (Native American)|Native American tribes]] have their own requirements for membership, often based on at least one of a person's ancestors having been included on tribal-specific Native American censuses (or final rolls) prepared during [[treaty]]-making, relocation to [[Indian reservation|reservations]] or apportionment of land in the late 19th century and early 20th century. One example is the [[Dawes Rolls]].
 
====Cohanim ancestry====
As presented above in [[mtDNA testing]], if a perfect match is found, the mtDNA test results can be helpful. In some cases, research according to traditional genealogy methods encounters difficulties due to the lack of regularly recorded matrilineal surname information in many cultures (see [[Matrilineal surname]]).<ref name=Sykes />
 
Autosomal DNA combined with genealogical research has been used by adoptees to find their biological parents,<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.deseretnews.com/article/865667270/Adopted-man-finds-biological-family-with-help-of-AncestryDNA.html|title=Adopted man finds biological family with help of AncestryDNA|last=Randall|first=Caresa Alexander|date=2016-11-16|work=Deseret News|access-date=2018-04-30|language=en}}</ref> has been used to find the name and family of unidentified bodies<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.cbsnews.com/news/buckskin-girl-case-groundbreaking-dna-tech-leads-to-id-of-1981-murder-victim/|title="Buckskin Girl" case: DNA breakthrough leads to ID of 1981 murder victim|last=|first=|date=2018-03-12|work=CBS News|access-date=2018-04-30|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.forensicmag.com/news/2018/05/dna-doe-project-ids-2001-motel-suicide-using-genealogy|title=DNA Doe Project IDs 2001 Motel Suicide, Using Genealogy|last=Augenstein|first=Seth|date=2018-05-09|work=Forensic Magazine|access-date=2018-05-19|language=en}}</ref> and by law enforcement agencies to apprehend criminals<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2018/04/golden-state-killer-east-area-rapist-dna-genealogy/559070/|title=How a Genealogy Website Led to the Alleged Golden State Killer|last=Zhang|first=Sarah|date=2018-03-27|work=The Atlantic|access-date=2018-04-30|language=en-US}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/crime/investigators-use-dna-genealogy-database-to-id-suspect-in-1987-double-homicide/|title=Investigators use DNA, genealogy database to ID suspect in 1987 double homicide|last=Green|first=Sara Jean|date=2018-05-18|work=The Seattle Times|access-date=2018-05-19|language=en-US}}</ref> (for example, the [[Contra Costa County, California|Contra Costa County]] District Attorney's office used the "open-source" genetic genealogy site [[GEDmatch]] to find relatives of the suspect in the [[Golden State Killer]] case.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.technologyreview.com/s/611038/investigators-searched-a-million-peoples-dna-to-find-golden-state-serial-killer/|title=Investigators searched a million people’s DNA to find Golden State serial killer|last=Regalado|first=Antonio|publisher= | accessdate = June 10, 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.sacbee.com/news/local/crime/article209987599.html|title='Open-source' genealogy site provided missing DNA link to East Area Rapist, investigator says|last1=Lillis|first1=Ryan|date=April 27, 2018|work=[[The Sacramento Bee]]|access-date=April 27, 2018|last2=Kasler|first2=Dale|last3=Chabria|first3=Anita}}</ref>). [[The Atlantic]] magazine commented in 2018 that "Now, the floodgates are open. ..a small, volunteer-run website, GEDmatch.com, has become ... the de facto DNA and genealogy database for all of law enforcement.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2018/05/the-coming-wave-of-murders-solved-by-genealogy/560750/|title=The Coming Wave of Murders Solved by Genealogy|last=Zhang|first=Sarah|date=2018-05-19|work=The Atlantic|access-date=2018-05-19|language=en-US}}</ref>
 
==Drawbacks==
==DNA in genealogy software==
Some{{which|date=January 2018}} [[Comparison of genealogy software|genealogy software]] programs allow recording DNA marker test results, allowing for tracking of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA tests, and recording results for relatives.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://thegeneticgenealogist.com/2013/09/22/what-else-can-i-do-with-my-dna-test-results/|title=What Else Can I Do With My DNA Test Results?|last=Bettinger|first=Blaine|date=2013-09-22|website=The Genetic Genealogist|access-date=2016-11-24}}</ref> DNA-family tree wall charts are available.
 
== See also ==
{{Portal|Molecular Anthropology}}
{{main|List of genetic genealogy topics}}
{{Div col|colwidth=30em}}
* [[Ancestry.com]]
* [[Archaeogenetics]]
* [[DNA paternity testing]]
* [[Electropherogram]]
* [[Family name]] (Patrilineal surname)
* [[Genetic fingerprinting]]
* [[Genetic genealogy]]
* [[Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act]]
* [[Genographic Project|National Geographic Geno 2.0]]
* [[Human genetic clustering]]
* [[International HapMap Project]]
* [[International Society of Genetic Genealogy]]
* [[List of DNA tested mummies]]
* [[MyHeritage]]
{{div col end}}
 
 
== 関連項目 ==