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抗レトロウイルス療法を行っても、HIV感染者は長期的に[[神経認知障害]]<ref name="Woods2009">{{Cite journal |volume=19 |title=Cognitive neuropsychology of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders | first4=I. |issue=2 |pages=152–168 |journal=Neuropsychology review |pmc=2690857 |last4=Grant | first3=E. |last1=Woods |year=2009 |pmid=19462243 | first1=S. |last2=Moore |last3=Weber | first2=D. |doi=10.1007/s11065-009-9102-5 }}</ref><!-- Woods2009 covers neurocognitive -->、[[骨粗鬆症]]<ref name="Brown2006">{{Cite journal |issue=17 |title=Antiretroviral therapy and the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis: a meta-analytic review |pages=2165–2174 |journal=AIDS (London, England) |volume=20 | first2=R. |last2=Qaqish |pmid=17086056 |last1=Brown | first1=T. |doi=10.1097/QAD.0b013e32801022eb |year=2006 }}</ref><!-- Brown2006 covers osteoarthritis -->、[[神経病]]<ref name="Nicholas2007">{{Cite journal|title=Symptom management and self-care for peripheral neuropathy in HIV/AIDS |journal=AIDS Care | volume=19 |issue=2|pages=179–89 |date=February 2007 |pmid=17364396 |doi=10.1080/09540120600971083|url=|author1=Nicholas, P.K.|author2=Kemppainen, J.K.|author3=Canaval, G.E. |display-authors=3|last4=Corless|first4=I. B.|last5=Sefcik|first5=E. F.|last6=Nokes|first6=K. M.|last7=Bain|first7=C. A.|last8=Kirksey|first8=K. M.|last9=Sanzero Eller|first9=L.}}</ref><!-- Nicholas2007 covers neuropathy -->、がん<ref name="Boshoff2002">{{Cite journal|vauthors=Boshoff C, Weiss R |title=AIDS-related malignancies | journal=Nature Reviews Cancer | year=2002 | pages=373–382 | volume=2 | issue=5 |pmid=12044013 | doi=10.1038/nrc797}}</ref><ref name="Yarchoan2005">{{Cite journal|vauthors=Yarchoan R, Tosato G, Little RF | title=Therapy insight: AIDS-related malignancies – the influence of antiviral therapy on pathogenesis and management | journal=Nat. Clin. Pract. Oncol. | year=2005 | pages=406–415 | volume=2 |issue=8 | pmid=16130937 | doi=10.1038/ncponc0253}}</ref><!-- Boshoff2002 and Yarchoan2005 cover cancer -->、[[腎疾患|腎臓疾患]]<ref name="Post2009">{{Cite journal |year=2009 |pmid=19106702 |last1=Post | first1=F. . |doi=10.1097/QCO.0b013e328320ffec |last2=Holt | first2=S. . |title=Recent developments in HIV and the kidney |issue=1 |pages=43–48 |journal=Current opinion in infectious diseases |volume=22 }}</ref><!-- Post2009 covers HIV/kidney -->、および[[心血管疾患]]等<ref name="Burgoyne2008" /><!-- Burgoyne2008 covers cardiovascular -->を経験する可能性がある。場合によっては、[[リポジストロフィー]]がHIVとその治療によって引き起こされることがある<ref name="Burgoyne2008">{{Cite journal|vauthors=Burgoyne RW, Tan DH |title=Prolongation and quality of life for HIV-infected adults treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): a balancing act |journal=J. Antimicrob. Chemother. |volume=61 |issue=3 |pages=469–73|date=March 2008 |pmid=18174196|doi=10.1093/jac/dkm499 |url=http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=18174196}}</ref>。
 
 
== 疫学 ==
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