「食物依存症」の版間の差分

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編集の要約なし
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[[File:Sucre blanc cassonade complet rapadura.jpg|thumb|right|砂糖や脂肪には依存性がある]]
[[File:Peanut Butter, The Binges.jpg|thumb|right|ピーナッツバターのドカ食い]]
'''食物依存症'''(しょくもついぞんしょう、フードアディクション、food addiction)、'''摂食依存症'''(せっしょくいぞんしょう、eating addiction)とは[[行動嗜癖]]の一つであり、有害な結果をもたらすにもかかわらず、嗜好性の高い食物(たとえば高脂肪や高糖質)の[[ビンジ・イーティング|強迫的な消費]]に特徴づけられる。その食物はヒトや他の動物の[[報酬系]]を著しく刺激するためである<ref name="Natural and drug addictions">{{cite journal | vauthors = Olsen CM | title = Natural rewards, neuroplasticity, and non-drug addictions | journal = Neuropharmacology | volume = 61 | issue = 7 | pages = 1109–22 | date = December 2011 | pmid = 21459101 | pmc = 3139704 | doi = 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.03.010 | quote = Functional neuroimaging studies in humans have shown that gambling (Breiter et al, 2001), shopping (Knutson et al, 2007), orgasm (Komisaruk et al, 2004), playing video games (Koepp et al, 1998; Hoeft et al, 2008) and the sight of appetizing food (Wang et al, 2004a) activate many of the same brain regions (i.e., the mesocorticolimbic system and extended amygdala) as drugs of abuse (Volkow et al, 2004).&nbsp;... As described for food reward, sexual experience can also lead to activation of plasticity-related signaling cascades.&nbsp;... In some people, there is a transition from “normal” to compulsive engagement in natural rewards (such as food or sex), a condition that some have termed behavioral or non-drug addictions (Holden, 2001; Grant et al., 2006a).&nbsp;... the transcription factor delta FosB is increased during access to high fat diet (Teegarden and Bale, 2007) or sucrose (Wallace et al, 2008).&nbsp;...To date, there is very little data directly measuring the effects of food on synaptic plasticity in addiction-related neurocircuitry.&nbsp;... Following removal of sugar or fat access, withdrawal symptoms including anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors emerge (Colantuoni et al, 2002; Teegarden and Bale, 2007). After this period of “abstinence”, operant testing reveals “craving” and “seeking” behavior for sugar (Avena et al, 2005) or fat (Ward et al, 2007), as well as “incubation of craving” (Grimm et al, 2001; Lu et al, 2004; Grimm et al, 2005), and “relapse” (Nair et al, 2009b) following abstinence from sugar. In fact, when given a re-exposure to sugar after a period of abstinence, animals consume a much greater amount of sugar than during previous sessions (Avena et al., 2005). }}<!--The following link is outside the template to make it hyperlinked while appearing to be part of the quote.-->"[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3139704/table/T1/?report=objectonly Table 1]"</ref><ref name="Food/eating addiction review">{{cite journal | vauthors = Hebebrand J, Albayrak Ö, Adan R, Antel J, Dieguez C, de Jong J, Leng G, Menzies J, Mercer JG, Murphy M, van der Plasse G, Dickson SL | title = "Eating addiction", rather than "food addiction", better captures addictive-like eating behavior | journal = Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | volume = 47 | issue = | pages = 295–306 | date = November 2014 | pmid = 25205078 | doi = 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.08.016 | quote = <br />• Evidence for addiction to specific macronutrients is lacking in humans.<br />• 'Eating addiction' describes a behavioral addiction.&nbsp;...<br /> We concur with Hone-Blanchet and Fecteau (2014) that it is premature to conclude validity of the food addiction phenotype in humans from the current behavioral and neurobiological evidence gained in rodent models.&nbsp;... To conclude, the society as a whole should be aware of the differences between addiction in the context of substance use versus an addictive behavior. As we pointed out in this review, there is very little evidence to indicate that humans can develop a 'Glucose/Sucrose/Fructose Use Disorder' as a diagnosis within the DSM-5 category Substance Use Disorders. We do, however, view both rodent and human data as consistent with the existence of addictive eating behavior. }}</ref>。
 
これには[[精神的依存]]も確認されており、強迫的に摂取していた食物を、低糖質、低脂肪のものに置き換えると[[離脱症状]]が発生する<ref name="Natural and drug addictions" />。この嗜癖行動は生物学的なものではないため、摂食障害としてコードを付けることはできず、専門家は[[行動療法]]を提供し<ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = Ho KS, Nichaman MZ, Taylor WC, Lee ES, Foreyt JP | title = Binge eating disorder, retention, and dropout in an adult obesity program | journal = The International Journal of Eating Disorders | volume = 18 | issue = 3 | pages = 291–4 | date = November 1995 | pmid = 8556026 | doi = 10.1002/1098-108X(199511)18:3<291::AID-EAT2260180312>3.0.CO;2-Y }}</ref>、YFAS質問票と呼ばれる物質依存の診断基準を用いて対応している<ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = Hebebrand J, Albayrak Ö, Adan R, Antel J, Dieguez C, de Jong J, Leng G, Menzies J, Mercer JG, Murphy M, van der Plasse G, Dickson SL | title = "Eating addiction", rather than "food addiction", better captures addictive-like eating behavior | journal = Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | volume = 47 | pages = 295–306 | date = November 2014 | pmid = 25205078 | doi = 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.08.016 }}</ref>。
 
==解説定義==
食物依存症繰り返される[[セルフコントロール|コントロール]]不能な摂食([[ビンジ・イーティング]]、ドカ食い、むちゃ食い)エピソードに特徴づけられる、強迫的な過食者をさす。むちゃ食いとは、自身がセルフコントロール喪失を自覚しながらも、不健康な量を食べてしまうことである<ref name=":2">{{cite journal | vauthors = Saunders R | title = "Grazing": a high-risk behavior | journal = Obesity Surgery | volume = 14 | issue = 1 | pages = 98–102 | date = January 2004 | pmid = 14980042| doi = 10.1381/096089204772787374 }}</ref>。当初は食物依存症は欲求の形をしているため、人は欲求に対抗できず、それに自然に捕まってしまう<ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = Corsica JA, Pelchat ML | title = Food addiction: true or false? | journal = Current Opinion in Gastroenterology | volume = 26 | issue = 2 | pages = 165–9 | date = March 2010 | pmid = 20042860 | doi = 10.1097/mog.0b013e328336528d }}</ref>。
 
むちゃ食いの後には、罪悪感や抑うつに至りえる<ref name=":0">{{Cite web|url = http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/mental-health-food-addiction|title = Food Addiction|date = August 21, 2014|access-date = October 27, 2014|website = WebMD|publisher = WebMD|last = Goldberg|first = Joseph | name-list-format = vanc }}</ref>。たとえば一部の人は、太ってしまったと感じ、翌日の予定をキャンセルしうるだろう。
 
== 徴候と症状 ==
食事依存症は[[ビンジ・イーティング|強迫的過食]](ビンジ・イーティング)な過食が、中心的かつ唯一の定義的な特徴である。
 
[[強迫的]]過食者の一般的な行動には、一人で食べる、食物を素早く食べる、急速に体重を増やす、胃の気分が悪くなるまで食べることなどがある。その他の兆候には、運動の著しい減少、体重増加による活動低下が挙げられる。感情的指標には、罪悪感、[[セルフコントロール]]喪失感、[[抑うつ]]、[[気分変調]]などがある<ref name=":0" /><ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/eating-disorders/binge-eating-disorder/mental-health-food-addiction#1|title=Food Addiction Signs and Treatments|work=WebMD|access-date=2017-02-28|language=en-US}}</ref>。[[セルフコントロール]]喪失というのは、特定の食品を入手するため外出する、欲求を満たすため食品に不必要な金額を費やすといった行動で確認される。
 
== 影響 ==
食物依存症は、特にそれが長期にわたる場合には本人のあらゆる面にマイナスの影響を与え、有害で慢性的な症状を引き起こす<ref name=":4">{{Cite news|url=http://www.timberlineknolls.com/eating-disorder/food-addiction|title=What Are The Effects of Food Addiction |date=2013-02-18|work=Authority Nutrition|access-date=2017-02-28 }}</ref>。
 
=== 身体的影響 ===