「アンカーベイビー」の版間の差分

編集の要約なし
タグ: モバイル編集 モバイルウェブ編集 改良版モバイル編集
タグ: モバイル編集 モバイルウェブ編集 ビジュアルエディター 改良版モバイル編集
 
== 歴史 ==
類語であるAnchor child(''アンカーチャイルド)は''、この場合「まだ海外にいる家族の移民を後援する非常に若い移民」を指し、[[1987年]]以降の[[ベトナム|ベトナム]]の[[ボートピープル]]に対して頻繁に使用された。 <ref name="doubletongue">{{Cite web|url=http://www.doubletongued.org/index.php/dictionary/anchor_baby/|title=anchor baby|website=Double Tongued Dictionary|quote='''Anchor baby:''' ''n.'' a child born of an immigrant in the United States, said to be a device by which a family can find legal foothold in the US, since those children are automatically allowed to choose American citizenship. Also '''anchor child''', a very young immigrant who will later sponsor citizenship for family members who are still abroad.}}</ref> <ref name="LATM">{{Cite news|title=A Profile of a Lost Generation|url=http://articles.latimes.com/1987-12-13/magazine/tm-28306_1_schooling|newspaper=Los Angeles Times Magazine|date=December 13, 1987|page=12|quote=They are “anchor children,” saddled with the extra burden of having to attain a financial foothold in America to sponsor family members who remain in Vietnam.}}</ref> <ref name="TS">{{Cite news|title=Sympathy for the boat people is wearing thin|first=Frances|last=Kelly|newspaper=Toronto Star|date=June 2, 1991|page=H2|quote=Known as “anchor” children, aid workers say the youngsters are put on boats by families who hope they’ll be resettled in the United States or Canada and can then apply to have their families join them.}}</ref> <ref>{{Citation|title=New Media and the 'Anchor Baby' Boom|journal=Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication|volume=17|pages=60–76|last=Ignatow|first1=Gabe|last2=Williams|first2=Alexander|date=17 October 2011|doi=10.1111/j.1083-6101.2011.01557.x}}</ref> <ref name="WOTY">{{Cite web|url=http://www.americandialect.org/WOTY-noms-Barrett.pdf|title=2006 Word of the Year Nominations|author=|date=December 24, 2006|website=americandialect.org|publisher=[[American Dialect Society]]|accessdate=March 25, 2012}}</ref> [[2002年]][[最高裁判所 (アイルランド)|アイルランド最等法院裁判所]]で、アイルランド生まれの子供を指すためにこの家族の弁護士がこの語を使用した。両親の[[強制送還]]を命じた[[2003年]]の[[最高裁判所 (アイルランド)|最高裁判所の判決で]]判事がアンカーベイビーとこれに関する議論について言及した <ref>{{Cite web|title=[2003] IESC 3 : Lobe & ors -v- Minister for Justice Equality and Law Reform; Osayande & anor -v- Minister for Justice Equality and Law Reform & ors|website=Judgments & Determinations|url=http://www.courts.ie/Judgments.nsf/0/B36C7582BE39870480256DEB005A6802|publisher=Courts Service of Ireland|accessdate=12 November 2018|date=|first=Adrian|author=Hardiman|authorlink=Adrian Hardiman|pages=§§10, 22–23, 68–70, 119}}; {{Cite web|author=McGuinness|authorlink=Catherine McGuinness|first=Catherine|title=Lobe & ors -v- Minister for Justice Equality and Law Reform; Osayande & anor -v- Minister for Justice Equality and Law Reform & ors|url=http://www.courts.ie/Judgments.nsf/0/B12E96C633724A6C80256DEB005A22AD|website=Judgments & Determinations|publisher=Courts Service of Ireland|accessdate=12 November 2018}}</ref> (アイルランドは翌年[[2004年]][[出生地主義''の''市民権は]]を廃止した )
 
「アンカーベイビー」という語は[[1996年]]に書籍などで登場するご、米国での移民論争への注目が高まる中、2006年に新たな注目が集まるまで比較的認知度は低かった。 <ref name="weekinreview">{{Cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/24/weekinreview/24barrett.html?partner=rssnyt&emc=rss|title=Buzzwords: Glossary|date=December 24, 2006|first=Grant|last=Barrett|authorlink=Grant Barrett|newspaper=[[The New York Times]]|quote='''anchor baby:''' a derogatory term for a child born in the United States to an immigrant. Since these children automatically qualify as American citizens, they can later act as a sponsor for other family members.}}</ref> <ref name="doubletongue">{{Cite web|url=http://www.doubletongued.org/index.php/dictionary/anchor_baby/|title=anchor baby|website=Double Tongued Dictionary|quote='''Anchor baby:''' ''n.'' a child born of an immigrant in the United States, said to be a device by which a family can find legal foothold in the US, since those children are automatically allowed to choose American citizenship. Also '''anchor child''', a very young immigrant who will later sponsor citizenship for family members who are still abroad.}}</ref> <ref name="WOTY">{{Cite web|url=http://www.americandialect.org/WOTY-noms-Barrett.pdf|title=2006 Word of the Year Nominations|author=|date=December 24, 2006|website=americandialect.org|publisher=[[American Dialect Society]]|accessdate=March 25, 2012}}</ref> <ref name="NYT">{{Cite news|title=Anchor Baby: A Term Redefined as a Slur|last=Julia Preston|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/09/us/anchor-baby-a-term-redefined-as-a-slur.html?_r=2|newspaper=[[The New York Times]]|date=December 8, 2011|accessdate=January 17, 2012}}</ref> この語は一般的に軽蔑的だと考えられています。 <ref>{{Cite web|title=anchor baby: definition of anchor baby in Oxford dictionary (American English) (US)|url=http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/anchor-baby|website=www.oxforddictionaries.com|accessdate=2015-11-05}}</ref> 2011年に''アメリカ遺産辞書''は辞書の新版に用語のエントリを追加しましたが、その用語は中傷的であったことを示していませんでした。 ワシントンの移民促進研究グループであるイミグレーションポリシーセンターのディレクターであるメアリージョバニョリによる重要なブログ記事に続いて、辞書はエスニックスラーのエントリと同様に、用語が「攻撃的」であることを示すためにオンライン定義を更新しました。 <ref>{{Cite news|title=Dictionary's definition of 'anchor baby' draws fire|last=Alan Gomez|url=http://content.usatoday.com/communities/ondeadline/post/2011/12/define-anchor-baby-american-heritage-dictionary/1|newspaper=USA Today|date=December 5, 2011|accessdate=January 17, 2012}}</ref> {{As of|2012}} 、定義は次のとおりです。 <blockquote> </blockquote> 定義を改訂する決定は、移民研究センターやアメリカ移民改革連盟などの移民反対派からいくつかの批判につながりました。 <ref>{{Cite web|url=http://cis.org/north/anchor-baby-mechanisms|title=Just How Does an Anchor Baby Anchor the Illegal Alien Parent?|author=North|first=David|date=16 January 2011|website=Center for Immigration Studies|publisher=|accessdate=27 November 2016|quote=We should adjust our policies – and let the world know we have done so – to minimize the benefits illegal alien parents get for having anchor babies in the U.S. Exactly how the law should be changed is another question, to be addressed later, but one thing is immediately clear: there ought to be a firm administrative policy of denying entrance to very pregnant tourists and border crossers – and there is no such policy at the moment.}}</ref>
 
[[ユタ州]] 司法長官の マークサートレフは、連邦政府による移民法のモデルとして2010年のユタコンパクト宣言を推進するための会議で、2012年に「神の子をアンカーベイビーと呼ぶのは無礼だ。」 <ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.deseretnews.com/article/865568109/Drafter-of-Utah-Compact-calls-document-gold-standard-for-fixing-nations-immigration-problems.html?s_cid=Email-2|title=Drafter of Utah Compact calls document 'gold standard' for fixing nation's immigration problems|newspaper=[[Deseret News]]|date=December 4, 2012}}</ref>と述べた。
 
== 移民としての資格 ==