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{{short description|Second infection on top of a previous one}}
{{Medical citations needed|date=December 2018}}
A '''superinfection''' is a second [[infection]] superimposed on an earlier one, especially by a different microbial agent of exogenous or endogenous origin, that is resistant to the treatment being used against the first infection.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.merriam-webster.com/medical/superinfection|title=Superinfection|publisher=Merriam-Webster Inc.|accessdate=14 March 2014}}</ref> Examples of this in [[bacteriology]] are the overgrowth of endogenous ''[[Clostridium difficile (bacteria)|Clostridium difficile]]'' that occurs following treatment with a [[broad-spectrum antibiotic]], and [[pneumonia]] or [[sepsis]] from ''[[Pseudomonas aeruginosa]]'' in some [[Neutropenia|immunocompromised]] patients.<ref>{{Cite web|title = Treatment of neutropenic fever syndromes in adults with hematologic malignancies and hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (high-risk patients)|url = http://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-neutropenic-fever-syndromes-in-adults-with-hematologic-malignancies-and-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-recipients-high-risk-patients|website = www.uptodate.com|access-date = 2016-02-09}}</ref>
 
In [[virology]], the definition is slightly different. Superinfection is the process by which a [[cell (biology)|cell]] that has previously been infected by one [[virus]] gets [[coinfection|co-infected]] with a different strain of the virus, or another virus, at a later point in time.<ref>{{cite web| title = HIV types, subtypes groups and strains: Is it possible to be infected more than once?| work = www.avert.org| publisher = [[AVERT]]| url = http://www.avert.org/hivtypes.htm| accessdate = 2010-11-23}}</ref> Viral superinfections may be resistant to the [[antiviral drug]] or drugs that were being used to treat the original infection. Viral superinfections may also be less susceptible to the host's immune response.<ref>{{cite web|author1=Robert M. Grant |author2=J. Jeff McConnell |date=May 2006| title = What do we know about HIV superinfection?| work = www.ucsf.edu| publisher = [[University of California, San Francisco]]| url = http://www.caps.ucsf.edu/pubs/FS/revsuperinfection.php| accessdate = 2010-11-23}}</ref> Recent metagenomic analyses have demonstrated that the novel coronavirus, [[SARS-CoV-2]] can be associated with superinfection and colonization of other pathogens, such as rhinovirus species and ''Moraxella spp.''<ref>{{cite journal|author1=Peddu V. |author2=Shean R.C. |author3=Shrestha L. |author4=Perchetti G.A. |author5=Minot S. |author6=Roychoudhury P. |author7=Huang M.L. |author8=Nalla A.K. |author9=Reddy S.B. |author10=Reinhardt A. |author11=Jerome K.R. |author12=Greninger A.L |date=May 2020| title = Metagenomic analysis reveals clinical SARS-CoV-2 infection and bacterial or viral superinfection and colonization | journal = Clinical Chemistry |volume=66 |issue=7 |pages=966–972 | doi = 10.1093/clinchem/hvaa106 | pmid = 32379863 |pmc=7239240 |doi-access=free }}</ref>
 
In [[parasitology]], superinfection is reinfection of the same genus of [[parasite]], as a person infected by ''[[Fasciola hepatica]]'' again infected by ''[[Fasciola gigantica]]''.
 
==See also==
* [[Antibiotic resistance]]
* [[Opportunistic infection]]
* [[Coinfection]]
* [[HIV superinfection]]
* [[Viral interference]]
 
==References==
{{Reflist}}
 
[[Category:Virology]]
 
 
{{infectious-disease-stub}}