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'''向神経性ウイルス'''([[英語]]:neurotropic virus)は、[[神経細胞]]に感染する[[ウイルス]]である<ref>[http://www.wordreference.com/definition/neurotropic Word Reference: Neurotropic<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>。
 
== Terminology ==
A neurotropic virus is said to be '''neuroinvasive''' if it is capable of accessing or entering the [[nervous system]] and '''neurovirulent''' if it is capable of causing disease within the nervous system. Both terms are often applied to [[central nervous system]] infections, although some neurotropic viruses are highly neuroinvasive for the [[peripheral nervous system]] (e.g. [[herpes simplex virus]]). Important neuroinvasive viruses include [[poliovirus]], which is highly neurovirulent but weakly neuroinvasive, and [[rabies virus]], which is highly neurovirulent but requires tissue trauma (often resulting from an animal bite) to become neuroinvasive. Using these definitions, herpes simplex virus is highly neuroinvasive for the peripheral nervous system and rarely neuroinvasive for the central nervous system, but in the latter case may cause [[herpesviral encephalitis]] and is therefore considered highly neurovirulent. Many [[Arbovirus|arthropod-borne]] neurotropic viruses, like [[West Nile virus]], spread to the brain primarily via the [[blood system]] by crossing the [[blood-brain barrier]] in what is called [[Viremia|hematogenous dissemination]].
 
== Examples ==
Neurotropic viruses that cause infection include [[Japanese encephalitis|Japanese Encephalitis]], [[Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus|Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis]], and [[California encephalitis virus|California encephalitis]] viruses; [[polio]], [[Coxsackie A virus|coxsackie]], [[Echovirus|echo]], [[mumps]], [[measles]], [[influenza]] and [[rabies]], as well as diseases caused by members of the family [[Herpesviridae]] such as [[herpes simplex virus|herpes simplex]], [[varicella-zoster]], [[Epstein–Barr]], [[cytomegalovirus]] and [[HHV-6]] viruses.<ref>{{cite journal | pmid =9103870 |author= Hotta H. | volume=55 | issue=4 | title=[Neurotropic viruses--classification, structure and characteristics]. | date=Apr 1997 | journal=Nihon Rinsho | pages=777–82}}</ref>
 
Those causing latent infection include herpes simplex and varicella-zoster viruses. Those causing slow virus infection include [[measles virus]], [[rubella]] and [[JC virus|JC]] viruses, and [[retrovirus]]es such as [[human T-lymphotropic virus]] 1 and [[HIV]].
 
== Research use ==
Neurotropic viruses are increasingly being exploited as research tools, and for their potential use in treatment. In particular, they are being used to improve the understanding of the nervous systems circuits.<ref>[https://books.google.com/books?id=HpJFw-qCp1kC&pg=PA66&lpg=PA66&dq=%22brain+research%22+%22Neurotropic+viruses%22&source=bl&ots=CPqSJaELyf&sig=49VIL4syJ1ibYCPn07vt9RkR5Jg&hl=en&ei=QAvGS8rvNYTisQPmu9m2DQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CBoQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=%22brain%20research%22%20%22Neurotropic%20viruses%22&f=false Advances in Virus Research, Volume 55, Karl Maramorosch]</ref><ref>[http://jnnp.bmj.com/content/74/8/1016.abstract Neurovirological methods and their applications, P G E Kennedy]</ref>
 
== Other neurotropic infections ==
Several diseases, including [[transmissible spongiform encephalopathy]], [[Kuru (disease)|kuru]], and [[Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease]] resemble a slow neurotropic virus infection&mdash;but are, in fact, caused by the infectious proteins known as [[prions]].<ref>{{cite journal | pmid =9103870 |author= Hotta H. | volume=55 | issue=4 | title=[Neurotropic viruses--classification, structure and characteristics]. | date=Apr 1997 | journal=Nihon Rinsho | pages=777–82}}</ref>
 
== See also ==
* [[Blood–brain barrier]]
* [[Immunology]]
* [[Pathogen]]
* [[Virulent]]
 
== References ==
 
{{reflist}}
 
[[Category:Viruses]]