「選民としてのユダヤ人」の版間の差分

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[[ユダヤ教]]において、'''選民性chosenness(chosenness)'''は、[[ユダヤ人]]が[[選民]]である: [[神]]との[[契約]]のなかにあるという信仰である。 This idea is first found in the [[Torah]] ([[モーセ]]五書) and is elaborated on in later books of the [[Tanakh|Hebrew Bible]]. Much is written about this topic in [[rabbinic literature]].
 
== [[ヘブライ聖書]]における選民性 ==
ユダヤ教において、'''選民性chosenness'''は、[[ユダヤ人]]が[[選民]]である: [[神]]との[[契約]]のなかにあるという信仰である。 This idea is first found in the [[Torah]] ([[モーセ]]五書) and is elaborated on in later books of the [[Tanakh|Hebrew Bible]]. Much is written about this topic in [[rabbinic literature]].
[[Tanakh|Hebrew Bibleタナフ]]によれば、選民としてのイスラエルの性格は、神の[[ミツワー]](''commandments'', 「戒め、おきて」などとも訳された)へのobedience服従、従順によって特徴づけられる。"Now therefore, if you will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then you shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people. For all the earth is mine: and you shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation" ([[出エジプト記]] 19:5, 6). "The Lord did not set his love upon you, nor choose you, because you were more in number than any people; for you were the fewest of all people; but because the Lord loved you, and because he would keep the oath which he had sworn unto your ancestors." ([[申命記]] 7:7, 8).
 
== ヘブライ語聖書における選民性 ==
[[Tanakh|Hebrew Bible]]によれば、選民としてのイスラエルの性格は、神のcommandments戒め、おきてへのobedience服従、従順によって特徴づけられる。"Now therefore, if you will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then you shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people. For all the earth is mine: and you shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation" ([[出エジプト記]] 19:5, 6). "The Lord did not set his love upon you, nor choose you, because you were more in number than any people; for you were the fewest of all people; but because the Lord loved you, and because he would keep the oath which he had sworn unto your ancestors." ([[申命記]] 7:7, 8).
 
The obligation imposed upon the Israelites is emphasized by the prophet [[アモス]] ([[アモス書]] 3:2): "You only have I singled out of all the families of the earth: therefore will I visit upon you all your iniquities." This idea is also expressed in Deuteronomy 14:2: "You are a holy people unto the Lord your God, and the Lord has chosen you to be a peculiar people unto Himself, above all peoples that are upon the face of the earth."
 
== [[ラビ・ユダヤ教]]の選民性への観点 ==
==Rabbinic Jewish views of chosenness==
The idea of chosenness has traditionally been interpreted by Jews in two ways: one way is that God chose the Israelites, while the other idea is that the Israelites chose God. Although collectively this choice was made freely, religious Jews believe that it created individual obligation for the descendants of the Israelites.
 
This sentence in italics is a quote from the Bible, [[Isaiah]] 45:20. "Come, gather together, Draw nigh, you remnants of the nations! No foreknowledge had they who carry their wooden images and pray to a God who cannot give success." (New JPS) In the medieval era some within the Christian community came to believe that this line referred to Christians worshipping Jesus; they demanded that it be excised. [[Ismar Elbogen]], a historian of the Jewish liturgy, held that the early form of the prayer pre-dated Christianity, and could not possibly have referred to it.
 
== 優越性としての選民性? ==
前期中世ヨーロッパにおいて、[[激しいユダヤ人迫害]]の時に、選民性とは、神がユダヤ人を残りの人類以上に愛しているということ、あるいは、ユダヤ人は非ユダヤ人よりも生得的に優秀である<!--そんな理論が本当にあるのか?-->ということを意味するというアイデアが発達した。この哲学は最初、[[イェフダ・ハレヴィ]] [[:en:Yehuda Halevi|Yehuda Halevi]] によってそのる[[クザリー]]([[クーザーリー]]) ''[[:en:Kuzari|Kuzari]]'' において広く教授された。
 
A mystical version of this idea exists in parts of the [[Zohar]], one of the primary works of [[Kabbalah]], esoteric Jewish mysticism. The Zohar comments on the Biblical verse which states "Let the waters teem with swarms of creatures that have a living soul" as follows: "The verse 'creatures that have a living soul,' pertains to the Jews, for they are the sons of God, and from God come their holy souls....And the souls of the other nations, from where do they come? Rabbi Elazar says that they have souls from the impure left side, and therefore they are all impure, defiling anyone who comes near them." (Zohar commentary on Genesis)
The ''Raya Mehemna'', a somewhat later work printed with the Zohar, has a similar view. One section states: "Israel merited that God called them 'men,' as it is written 'But you My flock, the flock of My pasture, you are men,' 'If any man of you brings an offering.' Why are they called 'men'? For it is written 'And you who cling to the Lord your God'. This means you and not the other nations, and because of this 'you are men', you are called men..." (''Raya Mehemna'', commentary on Torah portion Yitro, page 86a)
 
この見解は、[[ハバド]] [[:en:Chabad|Chabad]] founder創設者であるリャディの[[シュネウル・ザルマン]] Shneur Zalman of Liady によってその[[:en:Tanya]]において受容された。 A section in this book holds that non-Jewish souls come from unclean kelipot (left-over shells of the universe's creation), while Jewish souls are of a higher character. (''Tanya'', Likkutay Amarim I, 5-11 and 6a). 本書はThis book is accepted as authoritative by all Lubavitch Jews. [[Adin Steinsaltz]]をふくむ一部のラビたちは、この一節をdownplayし、または再解釈している。[http://www.steinsaltz.org/forums/forum.asp?forumid=4]
 
Over time views of this nature became popular among a segment of the Jewish community; however, such views were rejected by the majority of the Jewish community. Today they are explicitly rejected by all Reform and Conservative Jews, and are only a small minority view within modern Orthodox Judaism. These views are rejected by communal Jewish organizations such as the B'nai Brith, American Jewish Committee and Anti-Defamation League.
The three largest Jewish denominations -- [[Orthodox Judaism]], [[Conservative Judaism]] and [[Reform Judaism]] -- maintain the belief that the Jews have been chosen by God for a purpose.
 
=== 正統派の諸見解 ===
ラビ・[[Rabbiイマニュエル・ジャコボヴィッツ]]卿 Rabbi Lord [[:en:Immanuel Jakobovits|Immanuel Jakobovits]], former Chief Rabbi of the United Synagogue of [[Great Britain]] ([[現代正統派ユダヤ教|現代(近代的)正統派ユダヤ教]] [[Modern Orthodox Judaism]]), describes chosenness in this way: "Yes, I do believe that the chosen people concept as affirmed by Judaism in its holy writ, its prayers, and its millennial tradition. In fact, I believe that every people - and indeed, in a more limited way, every individual - is "chosen" or destined for some distinct purpose in advancing the designs of Providence. Only, some fulfill their mission and others do not. Maybe the [[Hellenic civilization|Greek]]s were chosen for their unique contributions to art and philosophy, the [[ancient Rome|Roman]]s for their pioneering services in law and government, the [[British Empire|British]] for bringing parliamentary rule into the world, and the [[United States|American]]s for piloting democracy in a pluralistic society. The Jews were chosen by God to be 'peculiar unto Me' as the pioneers of religion and morality; that was and is their national purpose."
 
Rabbi [[Norman Lamm]], a leader of [[Modern Orthodox Judaism]] writes that "The chosenness of Israel relates exclusively to its spiritual vocation embodied in the Torah; the doctrine, indeed, was announced at Sinai. Whenever it is mentioned in our liturgy - such as the blessing immediately preceding the Shema....it is always related to Torah or Mitzvot (''commandments''). This spiritual vocation consists of two complementary functions, described as "Goy Kadosh," that of a holy nation, and "Mamlekhet Kohanim," that of a kingdom of priests. The first term denotes the development of communal separateness or differences in order to achieve a collective self-transcendence.... The second term implies the obligation of this brotherhood of the spiritual elite toward the rest of mankind; priesthood is defined by the prophets as fundamentally a teaching vocation. ... (''The Condition of Jewish Belief: A Symposium Compiled by the Editors of Commentary Magazine'', 1966)
"tension" mentioned towards the end. Somebody can be seen as both inferior and saved. -->
 
=== 保守的諸派の見解 ===
[[Conservative保守派 Judaism(ユダヤ教)|保守派]], also[[:en:Conservative knownJudaism|Conservative asJudaism]]、また[[伝統派]]/[[マーソルティー]]・ユダヤ教 [[:en:Masorti|Masorti]] Judaism, views the concept of chosenness in this way:
:Few beliefs have been subject to as much misunderstanding as the "Chosen People" doctrine. The Torah and the Prophets clearly stated that this does not imply any innate Jewish superiority. In the words of Amos (3:2) "You alone have I singled out of all the families of the earth - that is why I will call you to account for your iniquities". The Torah tells us that we are to be "a kingdom of priests and a holy nation" with obligations and duties which flowed from our willingness to accept this status. Far from being a license for special privilege, it entailed additional responsibilities not only toward God but to our fellow human beings. As expressed in the blessings at the reading of the Torah, our people have always felt it to be a privilege to be selected for such a purpose. For the modern traditional Jew, the doctrine of the election and the covenant of Israel offers a purpose for Jewish existence which transcends its own self interests. It suggests that because of our special history and unique heritage we are in a position to demonstrate that a people that takes seriously the idea of being covenanted with God can not only thrive in the face of oppression, but can be a source of blessing to its children and its neighbors. It obligates us to build a just and compassionate society throughout the world and especially in the [[land of Israel]] where we may teach by example what it means to be a "covenant people, a light unto the nations. (''Emet Ve-Emunah: Statement of Principles of Conservative Judaism'', JTSA, New York, 1988, p.33-34)
 
Rabbi Reuven Hammer of [[伝統派]]/[[マーソルティー・ユダヤ教]] [[Masorti Judaism]] comments on the excised sentence in tha Aleinu prayer mentioned above:
:Originally the text read that God has not made us like the nations who "bow down to nothingless and vanity, and pray to an impotent god," ...In the Middle Ages these words were censored, since the church believed they were an insult to Christianity. Omitting them tends to give the impression that the Aleinu teaches that we are both different and better than others. The actual intent is to say that we are thankful that God has enlightened us so that, unlike the pagans, we worship the true God and not idols. There is no inherent superiority in being Jewish, but we do assert the superiority of monotheistic belief over paganism. Although paganism still exists today, we are no longer the only ones to have a belief in one God.
:(Reuven Hammer, ''Or Hadash'', The Rabbinical Assembly, NY, 2003)
 
=== 改革ユダヤ主義===
[[改革派 (ユダヤ教)|改革派]] [[:en:Reform Judaism|Reform Judaism]] views the concept of chosenness in this way: "Throughout the ages it has been Israel's mission to witness to the Divine in the face of every form of paganism and materialism. We regard it as our historic task to cooperate with all men in the establishment of the kingdom of God, of universal brotherhood, Justice, truth and peace on earth. This is our Messianic goal." (''The Guiding Principles of Reform Judaism'', Columbus, [[オハイオ|Ohio]], 1937)
 
In 1999 the Reform movement stated that "We affirm that the Jewish people are bound to God by an eternal covenant, as reflected in our varied understandings of Creation, Revelation and Redemption....We are Israel, a people aspiring to holiness, singled out through our ancient covenant and our unique history among the nations to be witnesses to God's presence. We are linked by that covenant and that history to all Jews in every age and place." (''Statement of Principles for Reform Judaism'', adopted at the 1999 [[Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania|Pittsburgh]] Convention, Central Conference of American Rabbis)
 
=== 選民性の批判: Reconstructionist?:再建派 Judaism===
[[再建派 (ユダヤ教)|再建派]] [[:en:Reconstructionist Judaism|Reconstructionist Judaism]] rejects the concept of chosenness. Its founder, Rabbi [[Mordecai Kaplan]], said that the idea that God chose the Jewish people leads to racist beliefs among Jews, and thus must be excised from Jewish theology. This rejection of chosenness is made explicit in the movement's [[siddur|siddurimシッドゥール]] (prayer books).
 
たとえば、 the original blessing recited before reading from the Torah from contains the phrase "asher bahar banu mikol ha’amim"; "Praised are you Lord our God, ruler of the Universe, ''who has chosen us from among all peoples'' by giving us the Torah." The Reconstructionist version is rewritten as "asher kervanu la’avodato", "Praised are you Lord our God, ruler of the Universe, ''who has drawn us to your service'' by giving us the Torah.
 
1980年代半ばにおいて、 the Reconstructionist movement issued its ''Platform on Reconstructionism''. It states that the idea of chosenness is "morally untenable", because anyone who has such beliefs "implies the superiority of the elect community and the rejection of others." (Federation of Reconstructionist Congregations and Havurot, newsletter, Sept. 1986, pages D, E.)
 
しかしながら、すべてのReconstructionist再建派のユダヤ人がこの見解を受容しているわけではないことに注意せよ。The newest siddur of the movement, ''Kol Haneshamah'', includes the traditional blessings as an option, and some modern Reconstructionist writers have opined that the traditional formulation is not racist, and should be embraced. (e.g. Mitchell Max, ''The Chosen People: Reclaiming Our Sacred Myth'')
 
An original prayer book by Reconstructionist feminist poet [[Marcia Falk]], ''The Book of Blessings'' has been widely accepted by both Reform and Reconstructionist Jews. Falk rejects all concepts relating to hierarchy or distinction; she sees any distinction as leading to the acceptance of other kinds of distinctions, and thus leading to prejudice. She writes that as a politically liberal feminist, she must reject distinctions made between men and women, homosexuals and heterosexuals, Jews and non-Jews, and to some extent even distinctions between the Sabbath and the other six days of the week. She thus rejects idea of chosenness as unethical. She also rejects Jewish theology in general, and instead holds to a form of religious humanism. Falk writes "The idea of Israel as God's chosen people...is a key concept in rabbinic Judaism. Yet it is particularly problematic for many Jews today, in that it seems to fly in the face of monotheistic belief that all humanity is created in the divine image - and hence, all humanity is equally loved and valued by God...I find it difficult to conceive of a feminist Judaism that would incorporate it in its teaching: the valuing of one people ''over and above'' others is all to analogous to the privileging of one sex over another." (Falk, 1996)
A number of responses to these views have been made by Reform and Conservative Jews; they hold that these criticisms are against teachings that do not exist within liberal forms of Judaism, and which are rare in Orthodox Judaism. A separate criticism stems from the very existence of feminist forms of Judaism in all denominations of Judaism, which do not have a problem with the concepts of chosenness.
 
== 反ユダヤ主義への利用:[[人種主義]]への諸化 ==
Many books and websites promote the idea that Judaism is inherently racist. Hundreds of websites exist run by [[neo-Nazi]]s, [[White supremacy]] advocates, [[Christian Identity]] adherents, and radical [[Islamist]] groups offer what they claim are authoritative quotes from rabbinic literature, all attempting to prove that Jews hate non-Jews and perceive them as non-human.
 
These books and websites generally attempt to prove their thesis through two techniques, (a) outright fabrication of quotes, and (b) quote-mining. Quote-mining is the deliberate sifting of hundreds, or thousands, of years of a literature to find a small group of quotes, and then presenting these quotes out of their historical context in order to falsely present the beliefs of a few people as the beliefs of all members of a religious, ethnic or national group. Writings such as the Talmud, which contain arguments immediately followed by refuting counterarguments, are particularly subject to such abuses.
 
[[反ユダヤ主義]] [[:en:anti-Semitism|anti-Semitism (=anti-Judaism)]] にかんする多くの書がこの現象を研究してきた。The [[Anti-Defamation League]] issued a report on the proliferation of such books:
 
:By selectively citing various passages from the Talmud and Midrash, polemicists have sought to demonstrate that Judaism espouses hatred for non-Jews (and specifically for Christians), and promotes obscenity, sexual perversion, and other immoral behavior. To make these passages serve their purposes, these polemicists frequently mistranslate them or cite them out of context (wholesale fabrication of passages is not unknown)...
Rabbi Malkiel Kotler, dean of the [[Haredi Judaism|Haredi]] Lakewood Yeshiva, writes "Our philosophy asserts that every human being is created in the image of the Lord and the primacy of integrity and honesty in all dealings without exception. I strongly repudiate any assertions in the name of Judaism that do not represent and reflect this philosophy." (Source: ''The Real Truth About the Talmud'' website)
 
== 参照項目 ==
* [[選民]] [[:en:Chosen people|Chosen people]], [[ChosenC:en:hosen one|en:hosen one]]
* [[:en:Supersessionism|Supersessionism]]
* [[ユダヤ人のイエスへの観点]] [[:en:Jewish view of Jesus|Jewish view of Jesus]]
 
== 外部リンク ==
* [http://www.adatshalom.net/dvarchin/max.html ''The Chosen People: Reclaiming Our Sacred Myth'', Mitchell Max]
 
=== Charges of racism ===
* [http://www.adl.org/hate-patrol/churchmovement.asp Anti-Defamation League paper on Christian Identity]
* [http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/orgs/american/adl/paranoia-as-patriotism/covenant.html The Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord - a Christian Identity movement]
* [http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Cyprus/8815/ Response to anti-Semites' posting of Talmud "Quotes" and other anti-Semitic fabrications and distortions]
* [http://www.angelfire.com/mt/talmud/ The Real Truth About The Talmud] (Exposes fraudulent or distorted Talmud quotes used by anti-Semites)
* [http://www.chabad.org/article.asp?AID=160993 Are the Jews the Chosen People?] chabad.org
 
== 参考文献 ==
* ''Emet Ve-Emunah: Statement of Principles of Conservative Judaism'', [[JTSA]], New York, 1988, p.33-34
* ''Platform on Reconstructionism'' Federation of Reconstructionist Congregations and Havurot, Sept.September 1986, pages D, E
* ''Statement of Principles for Reform Judaism'', [[1999年|1999]] [[ピッツバーグ綱領|Pittsburgh convention]] of the [[アメリカ・ラビ中央会議|Central Conference of American Rabbis]]
* ''[[Encyclopedia Judaica]]'', [[ケテル|Keter Publishing]]
* [[イスマール・エルボーゲン|Ismar Elbogen]], ''Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History'' [[JPS]], 1993.<br> The most thorough academic study of the Jewish liturgy ever written.
* Marcia Falk, ''The Book of Blessings'' HarperSanFranciso, 1996
* Reuven Hammer, Ed. ''Or Hadash: A Commentary on [[シッドゥール|Siddur]] Sim Shalom for Shabbat and Festivals'', The Rabbinical Assembly, 2003
* [[ノッソン・シャーマン]] [[:en:Nosson Scherman|Nosson Scherman]], Ed. ''The Complete [[Artscroll]] Siddur'', [[:en:Mesorah Publications|Mesorah Publications]], 2nd edition, 1986
 
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