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コメディ映画

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en:Comedy film(2012年7月24日 20:27:23(UTC))一部翻訳
#REDIRECT [[喜劇]]
'''コメディ映画'''('''Comedy film''')は、[[ユーモア]]に重点を置いた[[映画]]のジャンルである。これらの映画は聴衆から笑いを引き出すために制作されている。コメディは、一般的に陽気なドラマであり、観客を楽しませ、[[エンターテインメント]]として作られている。コメディというジャンルでは、しばしばユーモラスな状況、話し方、アクションやキャラクターが誇張される<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.filmsite.org/comedyfilms.html |title=Comedy Films |publisher=Filmsite.org |date= |accessdate=2012-04-29}}</ref>。
 
コメディは、古くから存在する映画のジャンルで、そして最も多作かつ人気なもののひとつである。[[サイレント映画]]時代のコメディは、音響よりも視覚的アクションや物理的なユーモアに依存していた。初期のコメディの形式のひとつである[[スラップスティック・コメディ映画|スラップスティック]]である<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.filmsite.org/comedyfilms2.html |title=Comedy Films |publisher=Filmsite.org |date= |accessdate=2012-04-29}}</ref>。
<!--==Types==
 
A '''[[風俗喜劇|comedy of manners]]''' film satirises the manners and affectations of a social class, often represented by stock characters. The plot of the comedy is often concerned with an illicit love affair or some other scandal. However, the plot is generally less important than its witty dialogue. This form of comedy has a long ancestry, dating back at least as far as ''[[空騒ぎ|Much Ado about Nothing]]'' by [[ウィリアム・シェイクスピア|William Shakespeare]].
 
'''Slapstick''' ([[三ばか大将|The Three Stooges]] is an excellent example of this kind of comedy) was popular in the earliest silent films, since they didn't need [[音|sound]] to be effective, and they were popular with non-English speaking audiences. The term slapstick was taken from the wooden sticks that [[道化師|clown]]s slapped together to promote audience [[拍手|applause]]. [[スラップスティック・コメディ映画|Slapstick film]]s involve aggressive, [[:en:physical comedy|physical]] and visual action, including harmless or painless [[:en:cruelty|cruelty]] and [[暴力|violence]], horseplay, and often vulgar sight gags. Slapstick often required exquisite timing and well-honed [[:en:performance|performance]] skills.
 
In a '''fish out of water comedy film''', the main character or character finds himself in an unusual environment, which drives most of the humour. Situations can be swapping gender roles, as in ''[[トッツィー|Tootsie]]'' (1982); an age changing role, as in ''[[ビッグ (映画)|Big]]'' (1988); a freedom-loving individual fitting into a structured environment, as in ''[[ポリスアカデミー|Police Academy]]'' (1984); a rural backwoodsman in the big city, as in ''[[クロコダイル・ダンディー|"Crocodile" Dundee]]'', and so forth. The Coen Brothers are known for using this technique in all of their films, though not always to comedic effect. Some films including people fitting the "fish-out-of-water" bill including ''[[ビッグ・リボウスキ|The Big Lebowski]]'' and ''[[シリアスマン|A Serious Man]]''.
 
A '''[[パロディ映画|parody or spoof film]]''' is a comedy that satirizes other film genres or classic films. Such films employ sarcasm, stereotyping, mockery of scenes from other films, and the obviousness of meaning in a character's actions. Examples of this form include ''[[ブレージングサドル|Blazing Saddles]]'' (1974), ''[[フライング・ハイ|Airplane!]]'' (1980), and ''[[ヤング・フランケンシュタイン|Young Frankenstein]]'' (1974).
 
The '''anarchic comedy film''', as its name suggests, is a random or stream-of-consciousness type of humour which often lampoons a form of authority<ref>{{Cite web|title=Absurd Comedy|url=http://www.allmovie.com/subgenre/absurd-comedy-d622|publisher=Allmovies}}</ref> . The genre dates from the silent era, and the most famous examples of this type of film would be those produced by [[モンティ・パイソン|Monty Python]].<ref>{{Cite web|last=Sexton|first=Timothy|title=Anarchic Comedy from the Silent Era to Monty Python|url=http://movies.yahoo.com/news/anarchic-comedy-silent-era-monty-python-173500945.html|publisher=Yahoo! Movies}}</ref> Others include ''[[:en:Duck Soup (1933 film)|Duck Soup]]'' (1933) and ''[[アニマル・ハウス|National Lampoon's Animal House]]'' .
 
The '''[[ブラックジョーク|black comedy]]''' film deals with normally [[タブー|taboo]] subjects, including, death, murder, sexual relations, suicide and war, in a satirical manner. Examples include ''[[:en:Arsenic and Old Lace (film)|Arsenic and Old Lace]]'' (1944), ''[[殺人狂時代 (1947年の映画)|Monsieur Verdoux]]'' (1947), ''[[:en:Kind Hearts and Coronets|Kind Hearts and Coronets]]'' (1949), ''[[:en:The Ladykillers|The Ladykillers]]'' (1955), ''[[Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb]]'' (1964), ''[[:en:The Loved One|The Loved One]]'' (1965), ''[[M★A★S★H マッシュ|MASH]]'' (1970), ''[[人生狂騒曲|Monty Python's The Meaning of Life]]'' (1983), ''[[未来世紀ブラジル|Brazil]]'' (1985), ''[[ローズ家の戦争|The War of the Roses]]'' (1989), ''[[ヘザース/ベロニカの熱い日|Heathers]]'' (1989), ''[[僕らのセックス、隣の愛人|Your Friends & Neighbors]]'' (1998), ''[[:en:Keeping Mum|Keeping Mum]]'' (2005), and ''[[バーン・アフター・リーディング|Burn After Reading]]'' (2008).
 
'''[[:en:Gross-out film|Gross-out film]]s''' are a relatively recent development, and rely heavily on vulgar, sexual or "toilet" humour. Examples include ''[[:en:Porky's|Porky's]]'' (1982), ''[[ジム・キャリーはMr.ダマー|Dumb and Dumber]]'' (1994), ''[[メリーに首ったけ|There's Something About Mary]]'' (1998), and ''[[アメリカン・パイ (映画)|American Pie]]'' (1999).
 
The '''[[ロマンティック・コメディ|romantic comedy]]''' sub-genre typically involves the development of a relationship between a man and a woman. The stereotyped plot line follows the "boy-gets-girl", "boy-loses-girl", "boy gets girl back again" sequence. Naturally there are innumerable variants to this plot, and much of the generally light-hearted comedy lies in the social interactions and sexual tensions between the pair. Examples of this style of film include ''[[:en:It's a Wonderful World (1939 film)|It's a Wonderful World]]'' (1939), ''[[:en:The Shop Around the Corner|The Shop Around the Corner]]'' (1940), ''[[麗しのサブリナ|Sabrina]]'' (1954), ''[[アニー・ホール|Annie Hall]]'' (1977), ''[[:en:When Harry Met Sally...|When Harry Met Sally...]]'' (1989), ''[[プリティ・ウーマン|Pretty Woman]]'' (1990), and ''[[フォー・ウェディング|Four Weddings and a Funeral]]'' (1994).
 
It was not uncommon for the early [[ロマンティック・コメディ|romantic comedy film]] to also be a '''[[スクリューボール・コメディ|screwball comedy film]]'''. This form of comedy film was particularly popular during the 1930s and 1940s. There is no consensus definition of this film style, and it is often loosely applied to slapstick or romantic comedy films. Typically it can include a romantic element, an interplay between people of different economic strata, quick and witty [[:en:repartee|repartee]], some form of role reversal, and a happy ending. Some examples of the screwball comedy are: ''[[或る夜の出来事|It Happened One Night]]'' (1934), ''[[赤ちゃん教育|Bringing Up Baby]]'' (1938), ''[[フィラデルフィア物語|Philadelphia Story]]'' (1940), ''[[ヒズ・ガール・フライデー|His Girl Friday]]'' (1940), and more recently ''[[:en:What's Up, Doc? (1972 film)|What's Up, Doc?]]'' (1972).
 
===Hybrid genres===
====Action comedy====
Films in this sub-genre blend comic antics and action where the film stars combine wit and one-liners with a thrilling plot and daring stunts. The genre became a specific draw in North America in the eighties when comedians such as [[エディ・マーフィ|Eddie Murphy]] started taking more action oriented roles such as in ''[[:en:48 Hrs.|48 Hrs.]]'' and ''[[ビバリーヒルズ・コップ|Beverly Hills Cop]]''. These type of films are often [[:en:buddy films|buddy films]], with mismatched partners such as in ''[[ミッドナイト・ラン|Midnight Run]]'', ''[[ラッシュアワー (映画)|Rush Hour]]'', ''[[バッドボーイズ (1995年の映画)|Bad Boys]]'', and ''[[ホット・ファズ -俺たちスーパーポリスメン!-|Hot Fuzz]]''. [[スラップスティック・コメディ映画|Slapstick]] [[:en:martial arts films|martial arts films]] became a mainstay of [[:en:Hong Kong action cinema|Hong Kong action cinema]] through the work of [[ジャッキー・チェン|Jackie Chan]] among others. It may also focus on [[スーパーヒーロー|superhero]]es such as [[Mr.インクレディブル|The Incredibles]], [[ハンコック (映画)|Hancock]] or [[キック・アス (映画)|Kick-Ass]].
Henri Daniel Rops
 
====Comedy horror====
Comedy horror is a type of horror film in which the usual dark themes are treated with a humorous approach. These films are either use goofy horror clichés such as in ''[[:en:Scream (film series)|Scream]]'', ''[[ヤング・フランケンシュタイン|Young Frankenstein]]'', ''[[リトル・ショップ・オブ・ホラーズ (1986年の映画)|Little Shop of Horrors]]'', ''[[ホーンテッドマンション (映画)|Haunted Mansion]]'' and ''[[最終絶叫計画|Scary Movie]]'' where campy styles are favoured. Some are much more subtle and don't parody horror, such as ''[[狼男アメリカン|An American Werewolf In London]]''. Another style of comedy horror can also rely on over the top violence and gore such as in ''[[ブレインデッド|Dead Alive]]'' (1992), ''[[:en:Evil Dead|Evil Dead]]'' (1981), and ''[[:en:Club Dread|Club Dread]]'' - such films are sometimes known as ''splatstick'', a portmanteau of the words ''splatter'' and ''slapstick''. It would be reasonable to put ''[[ゴーストバスターズ|Ghostbusters]]'' in this category.
 
====Fantasy comedy====
Fantasy comedy films are types of films that uses [[:en:magic (fantasy)|magic]], [[:en:supernatural|supernatural]] and or mythological figures for comic purposes. Most fantasy comedy includes an element of parody, or satire, turning many of the fantasy conventions on their head such as the hero becoming a cowardly fool, the princess being a klutz. Examples of these films include ''[[マルコヴィッチの穴|Being John Malkovich]]'', ''[[プリンセス・ブライド・ストーリー|The Princess Bride]]'', ''[[ナイト ミュージアム|Night at the Museum]]'', ''[[恋はデジャ・ブ|Groundhog Day]]'', ''[[もしも昨日が選べたら|Click]]'' and ''[[シュレック|Shrek]]''.
 
====Black comedy====
Much like comedy-horror, black comedy, or dark comedy, is a type of comedy film that often uses cruelty as the source of humour. Most black comedies involve crime or other intense moments like average school/workplace bullying. Some examples of these films include ''[[ケーブルガイ|The Cable Guy]]'', ''[[殺したい女|Ruthless People]]'' and ''[[博士の異常な愛情 または私は如何にして心配するのを止めて水爆を愛するようになったか|Dr. Strangelove]]''.
 
====Sci-fi comedy====
Sci-fi comedy films, like most hybrid genre of comedy use the elements of [[SF映画|science fiction films]] to over the top extremes and exaggerated science fiction stereotypical characters. Popular examples of these types of films include ''[[バック・トゥ・ザ・フューチャー|Back to the Future]]'', ''[[スペースボール|Spaceballs]]'', ''[[ゴーストバスターズ|Ghostbusters]]'', ''[[エボリューション (映画)|Evolution]]'', ''[[インナースペース (映画)|Innerspace]]'', ''[[ギャラクシー・クエスト|Galaxy Quest]]'', ''[[マーズ・アタック!|Mars Attacks!]]'', and ''[[メン・イン・ブラック (映画)|Men in Black]]''.
 
====Military comedy====
{{Anchor|Service comedy}}Military comedy films involve comic situations in a military setting. When a film is primarily about the experience of civilians called into military service and being trained, it may be referred to as a "service comedy". Military and service comedies include:
 
{{Col-begin}}{{col-break}}
*''[[:en:Buck Privates|Buck Privates]]''
*''[[:en:Carry On Sergeant|Carry On Sergeant]]''
*''[[:en:Catch-22 (film)|Catch-22]]''
*the [[:en:What Price Glory? (1926 film)|''Flagg and Quirt'']] series
*''[[グッドモーニング, ベトナム|Good Morning, Vietnam]]''
*''[[:en:How I Won the War|How I Won the War]]''
*''[[:en:I Was a Male War Bride|I Was a Male War Bride]]'' {{nb10}}
*''[[M★A★S★H マッシュ|M*A*S*H]]''
*''[[ミスタア・ロバーツ|Mister Roberts]]''
*''[[:en:No Time for Sergeants|No Time for Sergeants]]''
{{col-break}}
*''[[:en:Operation Petticoat|Operation Petticoat]]''
*''[[プライベート・ベンジャミン|Private Benjamin]]''
*''[[:en:The Private War of Major Benson|The Private War of Major Benson]]''
*''[[脱走大作戦|The Secret War of Harry Frigg]]''
*''[[:en:See Here, Private Hargrove|See Here, Private Hargrove]]''
*''[[パラダイス・アーミー|Stripes]]''
*''[[:en:Teahouse of the August Moon|Teahouse of the August Moon]]''
*''[[トロピック・サンダー/史上最低の作戦|Tropic Thunder]]''
*''[[:en:Up the Academy|Up the Academy]]''
*''[[What Did You Do in the War, Daddy?]]''
{{Col-end}}
 
==歴史==
===1895&ndash;1930===
Comic films began to appear in significant numbers during the era of silent films, roughly 1895 to 1930. The visual humour of many of these silent films relied on slapstick and [[バーレスク|burlesque]]. A very early comedy short was ''[[:en:L'Arroseur Arrosé|Watering the Gardener]]'' (1895) by the [[リュミエール兄弟|Lumière brothers]]. In American film, the most prominent comic actors of the silent era were [[チャールズ・チャップリン|Charlie Chaplin]] (although born in England, his success was principally in the U.S.), [[バスター・キートン|Buster Keaton]] and [[ハロルド・ロイド|Harold Lloyd]]. In his native France and throughout the world, [[マックス・ランデー|Max Linder]] was a major comic feature and might qualify as the first true film star.
 
A popular trend during the 1920s and afterward was comedy in the form of animated cartoons. Several popular characters of the period received the cartoon treatment. Among these were [[フィリックス・ザ・キャット|Felix the Cat]], [[ミッキーマウス|Mickey Mouse]], [[しあわせウサギのオズワルド|Oswald the Lucky Rabbit]], and [[ベティ・ブープ|Betty Boop]].
 
===1930&ndash;1950s===
Toward the end of the 1920s, the introduction of sound into movies made possible dramatic new film styles and the use of verbal humour. During the 1930s, the silent film comedy was replaced by dialogue from film comedians such as the [[:en:W. C. Fields|W. C. Fields]] and the [[マルクス兄弟|Marx Brothers]]. [[スタン・ローレル|Stan Laurel]] and [[:en:Oliver Hardy|Oliver Hardy]], who had made a number of very popular short silent films, used the arrival of sound to deepen their well-formed screen characterizations and enhance their visual humour, and went on to great success in talking films. The comedian [[チャールズ・チャップリン|Charlie Chaplin]] was one of the last silent film hold-outs, and his films during the 1930s were devoid of dialogue, although they did employ sound effects.
 
Screwball comedies, such as produced by [[フランク・キャプラ|Frank Capra]], exhibited a pleasing, idealized climate that portrayed reassuring social values and a certain optimism about everyday life. Movies still included slapstick humour and other physical comedy, but these were now frequently supplemental to the verbal interaction. Another common comic production from the 1930s was the short subject. [[:en:Hal Roach|Hal Roach]] Studio specialized in this form. While [[コロンビア映画|Columbia]] was prolific, producing 190 [[三ばか大将|Three Stooges]] releases, alone. These non-feature productions only went into decline in the 1950s when they were migrated to the television.
 
In the [[イギリス|United Kingdom]], film adaptations of stage [[笑劇|farce]]s were popular in the early 1930s, while the [[ミュージックホール|music hall]] tradition strongly influenced film comedy into the 1940s with [[:en:Will Hay|Will Hay]] and [[:en:George Formby, Jr.|George Formby]] among the top comedy stars of the time. In England in the late 1940s, [[イーリング・スタジオ|Ealing Studios]] achieved popular success as well as critical acclaim with a series of films known collectively as the "Ealing comedies", from 1947 to 1957. They usually included a degree of social comment, and featured ensemble casts which often included [[アレック・ギネス|Alec Guinness]] or [[スタンリー・ホロウェイ|Stanley Holloway]]. Among the most famous examples were ''[[:en:Kind Hearts and Coronets|Kind Hearts and Coronets]]'' (1949), ''[[:en:The Lavender Hill Mob|The Lavender Hill Mob]]'' (1951) and ''
he Ladykillers]]'' (1955).
 
With the entry of the United States into [[第二次世界大戦|World War II]], [[ハリウッド|Hollywood]] became focused on themes related to the conflict. Comedies portrayed military themes such as service, civil defense, boot-camp and shore-leave. The war-time restrictions on travel made this a boom time for Hollywood, and nearly a quarter of the money spent on attending movies.
 
The post-war period was an age of reflection on the war, and the emergence of a competing medium, the television. In 1948, television began to acquire commercial momentum and by the following year there were nearly a hundred television transmitters in American cities.
 
By the 1950s, the television industry had become a serious competition for the movie industry. Despite the technological limitations of the TV medium at the time, more and more people chose to stay home to watch the television. The Hollywood studios at first viewed the television as a threat, and later as a commercial market. Several comic forms that had previously been a staple of movie theaters transitioned to the television. Both the short subject and the cartoon now appeared on the television rather than in the theater, and the "B" movie also found its outlet on the television.
 
As television became filled with family-oriented comedies, the 1950s saw a trend toward more adult social situations. Only the [[ウォルト・ディズニー|Walt Disney]] studios continued to steadily release family comedies. The release of comedy films also went into a decline during this decade. In 1947 almost one in five films had been comic in nature, but by 1954 this was down to ten percent.
 
The 1950s saw the decline of past comedy stars and a certain paucity of new talent in Hollywood. Among the few popular new stars during this period were [[ジュディ・ホリデイ|Judy Holliday]] and the comedy team phenom of [[ディーン・マーティン|Dean Martin]] and [[ジェリー・ルイス|Jerry Lewis]]. Lewis followed the legacy of such comedians as Keaton and Harold Lloyd, but his work was not well received by critics in the United States (in contrast to [[フランス|France]] where he proved highly popular.)
 
The [[イギリスの映画|British film industry]] produced a number of highly successful film series, however, including the [[:en:Doctor in the House|Doctor series]], the [[:en:St. Trinian's|St. Trinian's]] films and the increasingly bawdy ''[[:en:Carry On (film series)|Carry On]]'' films. [[:en:John and Roy Boulting|John and Roy Boulting]] also wrote and directed a series of successful [[風刺|satire]]s, including ''[[:en:Private's Progress|Private's Progress]]'' (1956) and ''[[:en:I'm All Right, Jack|I'm All Right, Jack]]'' (1959). As in the United States, in the next decade much of this talent would move into television.
 
A number of French comedians were also able to find an [[英語|English speaking]] audience in the 1950s, including [[フェルナンデル|Fernandel]] and [[ジャック・タチ|Jacques Tati]].
 
===1960s&ndash;1980s===
The next decade saw an increasing number of broad, star-packed comedies including ''[[おかしなおかしなおかしな世界|It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World]]'' (1963), ''[[素晴らしきヒコーキ野郎|Those Magnificent Men in Their Flying Machines]]'' (1965) and ''[[グレートレース|The Great Race]]'' (1965). By the middle of the decade, some of the 1950s generation of American comedians, such as [[ジェリー・ルイス|Jerry Lewis]], went into decline, while [[ピーター・セラーズ|Peter Sellers]] found success with international audiences in his first American film ''[[ピンクの豹|The Pink Panther]]''. The bumbling [[:en:Inspector Clouseau|Inspector Clouseau]] was a character Sellers would continue to return to over the next decade.
 
Toward the end of the 1950s, darker humour and more serious themes had begun to emerge, including satire and social commentary. ''[[博士の異常な愛情 または私は如何にして心配するのを止めて水爆を愛するようになったか|Dr. Strangelove]]'' (1964) was a satirical comedy about [[冷戦|Cold War]] paranoia, while ''[[アパートの鍵貸します|The Apartment]]'' (1960), ''[[アルフィー (1966年の映画)|Alfie]]'' (1966) and ''[[卒業 (1967年の映画)|The Graduate]]'' (1967) featured sexual themes in a way that would have been impossible only a few years previously.
 
In 1970, the [[ブラックジョーク|black comedies]] ''[[:en:Catch-22 (film)|Catch 22]]'' and ''[[M★A★S★H マッシュ|M*A*S*H]]'' reflected the anti-war sentiment then prevalent, as well as treating the sensitive topic of suicide. ''M*A*S*H'' would be toned down and brought to television in the following decade as a long-running series.
 
Among the leading lights in comedy films of the next decade were [[ウディ・アレン|Woody Allen]] and [[メル・ブルックス|Mel Brooks]]. Both wrote, directed and appeared in their movies. Brooks' style was generally slapstick and zany in nature, often parodying film styles and [[ジャンル|genre]]s, including [[:en:Universal Horror|Universal horror films]] (''[[ヤング・フランケンシュタイン|Young Frankenstein]]''), [[西部劇|westerns]] (''[[ブレージングサドル|Blazing Saddles]]'') and [[アルフレッド・ヒッチコック|Hitchcock]] films (''[[メル・ブルックス/新サイコ|High Anxiety]]''). Following his success on [[ブロードウェイ・シアター|Broadway]] and on film with ''[[おかしな二人|The Odd Couple]]'' [[:en:playwright|playwright]] and [[脚本家|screenwriter]] Neil Simon would also be prominent in the 1970s, with films like ''[[:en:The Sunshine Boys (film)|The Sunshine Boys]]'' and ''[[:en:California Suite (film)|California Suite]]''. Other notable film comedians who appeared later in the decade were [[リチャード・プライヤー|Richard Pryor]], [[スティーヴ・マーティン|Steve Martin]] and [[バート・レイノルズ|Burt Reynolds]].
 
Most [[:en:British comedy|British comedy]] films of the early 1970s were spin-offs of [[テレビ番組|television series]], including ''[[:en:Dad's Army|Dad's Army]]'' and ''[[:en:On the Buses|On the Buses]]''. The greatest successes, however, came with the films of the [[モンティ・パイソン|Monty Python]] team, including ''[[モンティ・パイソン・アンド・ナウ|And Now for Something Completely Different]]'' (1971), ''[[モンティ・パイソン・アンド・ホーリー・グレイル|Monty Python and the Holy Grail]]'' (1975) and ''[[ライフ・オブ・ブライアン|Monty Python's Life of Brian]]'' in 1979.
 
In 1980, the gag-based comedy ''[[フライング・ハイ|Airplane!]]'', a [[パロディ|spoof]] of the previous decade's disaster film series was released and paved the way for more of the same including ''[[:en:Top Secret!|Top Secret!]]'' (1984) and the ''[[:en:Naked Gun|Naked Gun]]'' films. Popular comedy stars in the 1980s included [[ダドリー・ムーア|Dudley Moore]], [[トム・ハンクス|Tom Hanks]], [[エディ・マーフィ|Eddie Murphy]] and [[ダン・エイクロイド|Dan Aykroyd]]. Many had come to prominence on the American TV series ''[[サタデー・ナイト・ライブ|Saturday Night Live]]'', including [[ビル・マーレイ|Bill Murray]], [[スティーヴ・マーティン|Steve Martin]] and [[チェビー・チェイス|Chevy Chase]]. Eddie Murphy made a success of comedy-[[アクション映画|action film]]s including ''[[:en:48 Hrs.|48 Hrs.]]'' (1982) and the ''[[ビバリーヒルズ・コップ|Beverly Hills Cop]]'' series (1984&ndash;1993).
 
Also popular were the films of [[ジョン・ヒューズ|John Hughes]] such as ''[[フェリスはある朝突然に|Ferris Bueller's Day Off]]''. He would later become best known for the ''[[ホーム・アローン|Home Alone]]'' series of the early 1990s. The latter film helped a revival in comedies aimed at a family audience, along with ''[[ミクロキッズ|Honey, I Shrunk the Kids]]'' and its sequels.
 
===1990s–2010s===
One of the major developments of the 1990s was the re-emergence of the romantic comedy film, encouraged by the success of ''[[:en:When Harry Met Sally...|When Harry Met Sally...]]'' in 1989. Other examples included ''[[めぐり逢えたら|Sleepless in Seattle]]'' (1993), ''[[:en:Clueless (film)|Clueless]]'' (1995) and ''[[ユー・ガット・メール|You've Got Mail]]'' (1998) from the [[アメリカ合衆国|United States]], and ''[[フォー・ウェディング|Four Weddings and a Funeral]]'' (1994), ''[[スライディング・ドア|Sliding Doors]]'' (1998) and ''[[ノッティングヒルの恋人|Notting Hill]]'' (1999) from the [[イギリス|United Kingdom]]. Spoofs remained popular as well, especially with the ''[[最終絶叫計画|Scary Movie]]'' series and ''[[:en:Not Another Teen Movie|Not Another Teen Movie]]'' series.
 
Probably more representative of [[:en:British humour|British humour]] were the working class comedies ''[[ブラス!|Brassed Off]]'' (1996) and ''[[フル・モンティ|The Full Monty]]'' (1997). Other [[:en:British comedy|British comedies]] examined the role of the [[アジア系民族|Asian]] community in British life, including ''[[:en:Bhaji on the Beach|Bhaji on the Beach]]'' (1993), ''[[ぼくの国、パパの国|East Is East]]'' (1999), ''[[ベッカムに恋して|Bend It Like Beckham]]'' (2002), ''[[:en:Anita and Me|Anita and Me]]'' (2003) and ''[[ハウエルズ家のちょっとおかしなお葬式|Death at a Funeral]]''.
 
Also there were "stoner" comedies, which usually involve two guys on an adventure with random things happening to them along the way. Big movies of this sub-genre would be "[[ビッグ・リボウスキ|The Big Lebowski]]", ''[[:en:Dude, Where's My Car|Dude, Where's My Car]]'', ''[[ビッグ・トラブル (2006年の映画)|Big Nothing]]'', ''[[:en:Harold & Kumar Go to White Castle|Harold & Kumar Go to White Castle]]'', and ''[[スモーキング・ハイ|Pineapple Express]]''. These movies usually have drug-related jokes and crude content.
 
Another development was the increasing use of "[[:en:gross-out humour|gross-out humour]]" usually aimed at a younger audience, in films like ''[[メリーに首ったけ|There's Something About Mary]]'', ''[[アメリカン・パイ (映画)|American Pie]]'' and its sequels, and ''[[フレディのワイセツな関係|Freddy Got Fingered]]''. In mid 2000s, the trend of "gross-out" movies is continuing, with adult-oriented comedies picking up the box office. But serious black comedies (also known as dramatic comedies or [[:en:dramedy|dramedies]]) were performing also well, such as ''[[ニコラス・ケイジのウェザーマン|The Weather Man]]'', ''[[ブロークン・フラワーズ|Broken Flowers]]'' and ''[[:en:Shopgirl|Shopgirl]]''. In late 2006, ''[[Borat: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan]]'' blended vulgar humour with cultural satire.-->
 
== 関連項目 ==
* [[アメリカ喜劇映画ベスト100]]
 
== 参考文献 ==
{{Reflist|30em}}
 
== 外部リンク ==
* {{Dmoz|/Arts/Movies/Genres/Comedy/|Comedy Movies}}
 
[[Category:コメディ映画|*]]
[[Category:映画のジャンル|こめてい]]
 
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