「アロイス・ハーバ」の版間の差分

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{{出典の明記|date=mar 2015}}
{{独自研究|date=mar 2015}}
[[ファイル:Hába.JPG|thumb|right|アロイス・ハーバ]]
{{Portal クラシック音楽}}
'''アロイス・ハーバ'''('''Alois Hába''', [[1893年]][[6月21日]] モラヴィア・ヴィーゾヴィッツ([[ヴィゾヴィツェ]]) Wisowitz/[[:de:Vizovice|Vizovice]] - [[1973年]][[11月18日]] [[プラハ]])は、[[チェコ]]の[[作曲家]]。[[微分音]]開拓期の重要人物
[[ファイル:Hába.JPG|thumb|right|アロイス・ハーバ]]
 
==略歴==
幼少から[[民謡]]や音楽家の多い環境で育ち、[[民俗音楽]]に興味を持つ。[[1914年]]から[[1915年]]にかけて[[プラハ音楽院]]で[[ヴィーチェスラフ・ノヴァーク]]に師事。[[1918年]]に[[ウィーン]]に渡り、3年間[[フランツ・シュレーカー]]に師事した。[[1921年]]には初めて[[四分音]]を用いた弦楽四重奏曲第2番を作曲。
[[微分音]]開拓期の重要人物。幼少から[[民謡]]や音楽家の多い環境で育ち、[[民俗音楽]]に興味を持つ。[[1914年]]から[[1915年]]にかけて[[プラハ音楽院]]で[[ヴィーチェスラフ・ノヴァーク]]に師事。[[1918年]]に[[ウィーン]]に渡り、3年間[[フランツ・シュレーカー]]に師事した。[[1921年]]には初めて[[四分音]]を用いた弦楽四重奏曲第2番を作曲。
 
[[1923年]]、微分音を提唱していた[[フェルッチョ・ブゾーニ]]に面会し、激励される。同年プラハに戻り、プラハ音楽院教授に就任(~51年)。[[1924年]]には4分音の学科を音楽院に開設し、世界初の四分音ピアノを製造。以後、チェコスロヴァキア音楽界の中心的存在として活躍。[[1931年]]、4分音による歌劇《母》を完成。しかし、[[1939年]]に[[ナチス・ドイツ]]がチェコを占領し、[[第二次世界大戦]]終結まで彼の作品の演奏は禁止される。
[[1945年]]、5月5日劇場のオペラ団監督(~49年)及び[[プラハ芸術アカデミー]]教授(~61年)に就任。[[1948年]]、[[チェコスロバキア共産党]]を中心とした政権が発足するとハーバは一転して迫害の対象となり、彼が設立した微分音学科すら廃止されてしまう。この状態は[[ヨシフ・スターリン|スターリン]]の死([[1953年]])により[[名誉回復]]されるまで続いた。
 
==作風==
[[フェルッチョ・ブゾーニ|ブゾーニ]]など、ハーバ以前の試みがおおむね実験や理論に終始したのに対して、ハーバは作曲ばかりでなく理論書の執筆や微分音楽器の製作、教育など、より広い認知と受容を求めて幅広い活動を繰り広げた。一方でハーバの微分音の実践は、旋律の可能性を拡張するための手段にとどまり、しばしば親しみやすい民族的な雰囲気を醸し出すのに利用されている。その点では、調性・和声法の拡張および破壊の手段として微分音を利用した、[[イワン・ヴィシネグラツキー|ヴィシネグラツキー]]や[[カロル・シマノフスキ|シマノフスキ]]とは音楽的な着想が異なっていた。
 
==全作品==
*Op.no. 1 : Sonata for violin and piano (1914–15)
*Op.no. 1a: Suite (3 fugues) for piano (1918)
*Op.no. 1b: Variations for piano on a canon of Robert Schumann (1914–15, * 1918)
*Op.no. 3 : Sonata for piano
*Op.no. 4 : String Quartet No.1 (semitone), 1919
*Op.no. 5 : Overture for orchestra
*Op.no. 6 : 6 piano pieces (1920)
*Op.no. 7 : String Quartet No.2 (quarter-tone), 1920
*Op.no. 8 : Symphonic Fantasy for piano & orchestra (1920-1921)
*Op.no. 9a: Fantasy in quarter-tones for violin solo (1921)
*Op.no. 9b: Music in quarter-tones for violin solo (1922)
*Op.no. 10: 1st Suite for quarter-tone piano (revised 1932 as op. 11a), 1922
*Op.no. 11: 2nd Suite for quarter-tone piano (revised 1932 as op. 11b), 1922
*Op.no. 12: 3rd String Quartet (quarter-tone), 1922
*Op.no. 13: Vocal-suite in quarter-tones (choir), 1922
*Op.no. 14: 4th String Quartet (quarter-tone), 1922
*Op.no. 15: 5th String Quartet (Hába's 1st 6th-tone composition), 1923
*Op.no. 16: 3rd Suite for quarter-tone piano (1923)
*Op.no. 17: 1st Fantasy for quarter-tone piano (1923)
*Op.no. 18: Fantasy in quarter-tones for cello solo (1924)
*Op.no. 19: 2nd Fantasy for quarter-tone piano (1924)
*Op.no. 20: 3rd Fantasy for quarter-tone piano (1924)
*Op.no. 21: Fantasy for violin & quarter-tone piano (1925)
*Op.no. 22: 4th Suite for quarter-tone piano (1925)
*Op.no. 23: 5th Suite for quarter-tone piano (1925)
*Op.no. 24: 1st Suite for quarter-tone clarinet & quarter-tone piano (1925)
*Op.no. 25: 4th Fantasy for quarter-tone piano (1925)
*Op.no. 26: 5th Fantasy for quarter-tone piano (1925)
*Op.no. 27: 6th Fantasy for quarter-tone piano (1926)
*Op.no. 28: 7th Fantasy for quarter-tone piano (1926)
*Op.no. 29: 8th Fantasy for quarter-tone piano (1926)
*Op.no. 30: 9th Fantasy for quarter-tone piano (1926)
*Op.no. 31: 10th Fantasy for quarter-tone piano (1926)
*Op.no. 32: Fantasy for viola & quarter-tone piano (1926)
*Op.no. 33: Fantasy for cello & quarter-tone piano (1927)
*Op.no.34a: Fantasy for flute (or violin) & piano (1927–28)
*Op.no.34b: Suite (arr. J. Horák) (bass-clarinet & piano) 1927-28
*Op.no. 35: Matka (Mother), quarter-tone opera in 10 scenes (1927–28)
*Op.no. 36: Já (Me) - quarter-tone men's choir (1928)
*Op.no. 37: 6 Pieces for 6th-tone harmonium or string quartet (1928)
*Op.no. 38: Toccata quasi una Fantasia (semitone piano), 1931
*Op.no. 39: 4 Modern Dances for piano (1927-1931)
*Op.no. 40: Fantasy for Nonet Nr. 1 (12-tone), 1931
*Op.no. 41: Fantasy for Nonet Nr. 2 (7-tone), 1932
*Op.no. 42: 5 Choruses (3 quarter-tone boy's or women's voices), 1932
*Op.no. 43: Children's Play (quarter-tone children's voices: soli and choir), 1932
*Op.no. 44: 5 Mixed Choruses (quarter-tone choir)
*Op.no. 45: Pracující den (The working day), 10 quarter-tone men's choruses (1932)
*Op.no. 46: Cesta života (The Path of Life), symphonic fantasy for orchestra & Mass Songs for choir (1933)
*Op.no. 47: Nová země (The New Earth), 12-tone opera in 3 acts & 6 scenes (1934–36)
*Op.no. 48: Children's rhymes (medium voice & piano), 1936
*Op.no. 49: Duo for 6th-tone violins (1937)
*Op.no. 50: Přijď království Tvé (Thy Kingdom Come), 6th-tone musical drama in 7 scenes, 1937–42
*Op.no. 51: Dětské nálady (Children's Moods), 8-song cycle (middle voice & quarter-tone guitar), 1943
*Op.no. 52: Sonata for guitar (1943)
*Op.no. 53: Poesie života (Poetry of Life), 12-song cycle (soprano & quarter-tone guitar), 1943
*Op.no. 54: 1st Suite for quarter-tone guitar (1943)
*Op.no. 55: 2nd Suite for quarter-tone clarinet (solo), 1943
*Op.no. 56: Suite for quarter-tone trumpet & trombone (1944)
*Op.no. 57: Milenci (The Lovers), 7-song cycle (soprano & piano), 1944
*Op.no. 58: 5 Moravian Love-songs (mezzo-soprano, guitar or piano accompaniment), 1944
*Op.no. 59: Sonata for Chromatic Harp (1944)
*Op.no. 60: Sonata for Diatonic Harp (1944)
*Op.no. 61: Intermezzo and Praeludium for diatonic harp (1944–45)
*Op.no. 62: Sonata for quarter-tone piano (1946–47)
*Op.no. 63: 2nd Suite for quarter-tone guitar (1947)
*Op.no. 64: Ústava 9. května (Constitution of May 9) for men's choir (1948)
*Op.no. 65: 3 Men's Choruses (1948)
*Op.no. 66: Meditace (Meditation) for men's choir (1948)
*Op.no. 67: Mír (Peace) for men's choir (1948)
*Op.no.67a: Soviet Songs (choir), 1948 & Mass Songs (choir), 1948-50
*Op.no. 68: Za mír (For Peace), cantata (choir & orchestra), 1949
*Op.no. 69: Suite for bassoon solo (1950)
*Op.no. 70: 6th String Quartet (quarter-tone), 1950
*Op.no. 71: 3 Men's Choruses (1950)
*Op.no. 72: Suite in quarter-tones for 4 trombones (1950)
*Op.no. 73: 7th String Quartet "Christmas" (semitone), 1950–51
*Op.no. 74: Quartet for 4 bassoons (1951)
*Op.no.75a: Fantasy for organ (1951)
*Op.no.75b: Fantasy and Fugue "HABA" for organ (1951)
*Op.no.75c: 6 Polish Folksongs for harp (1951)
*Op.no. 76: 8th String Quartet (semitone), 1951
*Op.no. 77: Valašská suita (Wallachian Suite) for orchestra, 1951–53
*Op.no. 78: Sonata for clarinet (solo), 1951
*Op.no. 79: 9th String Quartet (semitone), 1951
*Op.no. 80: 10th String Quartet (6th-tone), 1951
*Op.no.81a: Suite for violin solo (1955)
*Op.no.81b: Suite for cello solo (1955)
*Op.no. 82: 3rd Nonet (1953–55)
*Op.no. 83: Violin Concerto (1954–55)
*Op.no. 84: Slovanské mudrosloví (Slavic Proverbs) for boy's or women's choir & piano (1945–55)
*Op.no.85a: Suite in 6th-tones for violin solo (1955)
*Op.no.85b: Suite in 6th-tones for cello solo (1955)
*Op.no. 86: Viola Concerto (1955–57)
*Op.no. 87: 11th String Quartet (6th-tone), 1957–58
*Op.no. 88: Suite Nr. 6 (quarter-tone piano), 1957–59
*Op.no. 89: Fantasy Nr. 11 (quarter-tone piano), 1959
*Op.no. 90: 12th String Quartet (quarter-tone), 1959–60
*Op.no. 91: Suite for dulcimer (1960)
*Op.no. 92: 13th String Quartet (semitone), 1961
*Op.no. 93: Suite in quarter-tones for violin (1961–62)
*Op.no. 94: 14th String Quartet (quarter-tone), 1963
*Op.no. 95: 15th String Quartet (semitone), 1964
*Op.no. 96: Suite for bass-clarinet (1965)
*Op.no. 97: 4th Nonet (1967-1971)
*Op.no. 98: 16th String Quartet (5th-tone), 1967
*Op.no. 99: Suite for saxophone solo (1968)
*Op.no.99a: Praha [Prague] for choir, 1968
*Op.no.100: Suite for bass-clarinet with piano (1969)
*Op.no.101: Poznámky z deníku (Diary-notes), melodrama for speaker & string-quartet (1970)
*Op.no.102: 6 Moods for piano (1971)
*Op.no.103: Suite for violin & piano (1972)
 
==ディスコグラフィー==
*Complete String Quartets (Streichquartette - Gesamtaufnahme; 4 CD, Bayer Records, Germany, 2006), performed by Czech ensemble Stamic Quartet
*Complete String Quartets (Neos, Germany, 2015), performed by Haba Quartet
*Four Fugues for Organ as the part of the album Alois Hába / Miloslav Kabeláč / Jan Hora / Petr Čech – Complete Organ Works (Vixen, Czech Republic, 2001, CD)
*Complete Nonets by Czech Nonet, (Supraphon, Czech Republic, 1995)
*Czech Music Of The 20th Century: Alois Hába - Chamber Music by Suk Quartet and Czech Nonet (Praga, France, 1993)
*Mother by Prague National Theatre Orchestra, chorus and soloists (Supraphon, Czechoslovakia, 1966, 1980 & 1982 - 2LP; CD)
*Alois Haba: Piano Works - Supraphon
*Alois Haba: Centenary - Supraphon
*Alois Haba: Nonet No. 1 / String Quartets Nos. 11, 12, 13 (Czech Nonet) [Vinyl LP] - Supraphon
*Alois Haba: Nonette/Streichquartette Label: Extraplatt
 
==著作==
*微分音のための新しい和声 (理論編・実習編)
 
==参考文献==
Lubomír Spurný and Jiří Vysloužil: Alois Hába: A Catalogue of the Music and Writings. Prague: Koniasch Latin Press, 2010. ISBN 978-80-86791-78-4.
Vlasta Reittererová and Lubomír Spurný: Alois Hába (1893–1973): mezi tradicí a inovací. Prague: Koniasch Latin Press, 2014. ISBN 978-80-87773-08-6.
 
==脚注==
{{Reflist}}
 
==外部リンク==
* [http://sonic-arts.org/monzo/haba/haba-worklist.htm Werkverzeichnis]
* [http://www.haba-quartett.de/ Hába-Quartett]
* [http://www.muni.cz/research/projects/1991?lang=cs Projekt an der Masarykova univerzita Brno zur Erforschung von Hábas Werk]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20010122095300/http://www.xs4all.nl/~huygensf/english/haba.html Überblick über Lebenslauf und künstlerischen Werdegang]
 
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[[Category:チェコの作曲家]]
[[Category:1893年生]]
[[Category:1973年没]]
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匿名利用者