「食物依存症」の版間の差分

Fitindia によってCommonsから削除された Peanut_Butter,_The_Binges.jpg を除去。理由: CSD F10 out of c:COM:SCOPE.
(Fitindia によってCommonsから削除された Peanut_Butter,_The_Binges.jpg を除去。理由: CSD F10 out of c:COM:SCOPE.)
{{嗜癖関連用語}}
[[File:Sucre blanc cassonade complet rapadura.jpg|thumb|right|砂糖や脂肪には依存性がある]]
 
[[File:Peanut Butter, The Binges.jpg|thumb|right|ピーナッツバターのドカ食い]]
'''食物依存症'''(しょくもついぞんしょう、フードアディクション、food addiction)、'''摂食依存症'''(せっしょくいぞんしょう、eating addiction)とは[[行動嗜癖]]の一つであり、有害な結果をもたらすにもかかわらず、嗜好性の高い食物(たとえば高脂肪や高糖質)の[[ビンジ・イーティング|強迫的な消費]]に特徴づけられる。その食物はヒトや他の動物の[[報酬系]]を著しく刺激するためである<ref name="Natural and drug addictions">{{cite journal | vauthors = Olsen CM | title = Natural rewards, neuroplasticity, and non-drug addictions | journal = Neuropharmacology | volume = 61 | issue = 7 | pages = 1109–22 | date = December 2011 | pmid = 21459101 | pmc = 3139704 | doi = 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.03.010 | quote = Functional neuroimaging studies in humans have shown that gambling (Breiter et al, 2001), shopping (Knutson et al, 2007), orgasm (Komisaruk et al, 2004), playing video games (Koepp et al, 1998; Hoeft et al, 2008) and the sight of appetizing food (Wang et al, 2004a) activate many of the same brain regions (i.e., the mesocorticolimbic system and extended amygdala) as drugs of abuse (Volkow et al, 2004).&nbsp;... As described for food reward, sexual experience can also lead to activation of plasticity-related signaling cascades.&nbsp;... In some people, there is a transition from “normal” to compulsive engagement in natural rewards (such as food or sex), a condition that some have termed behavioral or non-drug addictions (Holden, 2001; Grant et al., 2006a).&nbsp;... the transcription factor delta FosB is increased during access to high fat diet (Teegarden and Bale, 2007) or sucrose (Wallace et al, 2008).&nbsp;...To date, there is very little data directly measuring the effects of food on synaptic plasticity in addiction-related neurocircuitry.&nbsp;... Following removal of sugar or fat access, withdrawal symptoms including anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors emerge (Colantuoni et al, 2002; Teegarden and Bale, 2007). After this period of “abstinence”, operant testing reveals “craving” and “seeking” behavior for sugar (Avena et al, 2005) or fat (Ward et al, 2007), as well as “incubation of craving” (Grimm et al, 2001; Lu et al, 2004; Grimm et al, 2005), and “relapse” (Nair et al, 2009b) following abstinence from sugar. In fact, when given a re-exposure to sugar after a period of abstinence, animals consume a much greater amount of sugar than during previous sessions (Avena et al., 2005). }}<!--The following link is outside the template to make it hyperlinked while appearing to be part of the quote.-->"[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3139704/table/T1/?report=objectonly Table 1]"</ref><ref name="Food/eating addiction review">{{cite journal | vauthors = Hebebrand J, Albayrak Ö, Adan R, Antel J, Dieguez C, de Jong J, Leng G, Menzies J, Mercer JG, Murphy M, van der Plasse G, Dickson SL | title = "Eating addiction", rather than "food addiction", better captures addictive-like eating behavior | journal = Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | volume = 47 | issue = | pages = 295–306 | date = November 2014 | pmid = 25205078 | doi = 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.08.016 | quote = <br />• Evidence for addiction to specific macronutrients is lacking in humans.<br />• 'Eating addiction' describes a behavioral addiction.&nbsp;...<br /> We concur with Hone-Blanchet and Fecteau (2014) that it is premature to conclude validity of the food addiction phenotype in humans from the current behavioral and neurobiological evidence gained in rodent models.&nbsp;... To conclude, the society as a whole should be aware of the differences between addiction in the context of substance use versus an addictive behavior. As we pointed out in this review, there is very little evidence to indicate that humans can develop a 'Glucose/Sucrose/Fructose Use Disorder' as a diagnosis within the DSM-5 category Substance Use Disorders. We do, however, view both rodent and human data as consistent with the existence of addictive eating behavior. }}</ref>。