ハーグ条約 (1899年及び1907年)

1899年と1907年に採択された条約及び宣言

1899年1907年に締結されたハーグ条約(ハーグじょうやく Hague Conventions)は、戦時国際法の成文化を行った一連の条約及び宣言で構成されている。オランダハーグで開かれた万国平和会議において交渉がなされた。

1899年のハーグ条約編集

1899年のハーグ条約は、1899年7月29日に署名され、1900年9月4日に発効した。3つの条約と3つ宣言から成る。

  • (I):国際紛争平和的処理条約(Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes)[※ 1] - 紛争処理手続きとしての常設仲裁裁判所の設置。
  • (II):ハーグ陸戦条約(陸戦ノ法規慣例ニ関スル条約)(Convention with respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land)[※ 2] - 陸戦における国際法規。
  • (III):千八百六十四年八月二十二日 「ジェネヴァ」条約ノ原則ヲ海戦二応用スル条約(Convention for the Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of the Principles of the Geneva Convention of 22 August 1864)[※ 3] - 負傷や難破した船員救助の規定等。
  • (IV,1):気球の利用またはその他の新しい類似の方法による投射体及び爆発物の放出の禁止に関する宣言(Declaration concerning the Prohibition of the Discharge of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons or by Other New Analogous Methods)[※ 4]
  • (IV,2):毒ガス禁止宣言(窒息性毒ガスを放出することを単一目的とする投射体の禁止に関する宣言)(Declaration concerning the Prohibition of the Use of Projectiles with the Sole Object to Spread Asphyxiating Poisonous Gases)[※ 5]
  • (IV,3):ダムダム弾禁止宣言(外包硬固なる弾丸にして其の外包中心の全部を蓋包せず若は其の外包に裁刻を施したるものの如き人体内に入て容易に開展し又は扁平と為るべき弾丸の使用を各自に禁止する宣言書)(Declaration concerning the Prohibition of the Use of Bullets which can Easily Expand or Change their Form inside the Human Body such as Bullets with a Hard Covering which does not Completely Cover the Core, or containing Indentations)[※ 6] - ダムダム弾などの対人用拡張弾頭英語版の戦時における使用の禁止。

1907年のハーグ条約編集

1899年条約の改定を含め、13の条約と1つの宣言がなされた。うち、12の条約が発効した。

  • (I):国際紛争平和的処理条約(Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes)[※ 7]
  • (II):契約上ノ債務回収ノ為ニスル兵力使用ノ制限ニ関スル条約(Convention respecting the Limitation of the Employment of Force for Recovery of Contract Debts)[※ 8]
  • (III):開戦に関する条約(Convention relative to the Opening of Hostilities)[※ 9]
  • (IV):ハーグ陸戦条約(陸戦ノ法規慣例ニ関スル条約)(Convention respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land)[※ 10]
  • (V):陸戦ノ場合ニ於ケル中立国及中立人ノ権利義務ニ関スル条約(Convention relative to the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers and Persons in case of War on Land)[※ 11]
  • (VI):開戦ノ際ニ於ケル敵ノ商船取扱ニ関スル条約(Convention relative to the Legal Position of Enemy Merchant Ships at the Start of Hostilities)[※ 12]
  • (VII):商船ヲ軍艦ニ変更スルコトニ関スル条約(Convention relative to the Conversion of Merchant Ships into War-ships)[※ 13]
  • (VIII):自動触発海底水雷ノ敷設ニ関スル条約(Convention relative to the Laying of Automatic Submarine Contact Mines)[※ 14]
  • (IX):戦時海軍力ヲ以テスル砲撃ニ関スル条約(Convention concerning Bombardment by Naval Forces in Time of War)[※ 15]
  • (X):ジェネヴァ条約ノ原則ヲ海戦ニ応用スル条約(Convention for the Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of the Principles of the Geneva Convention (of 6 July 1906))[※ 16]
  • (XI):海戦ニ於ケル捕獲権行使ノ制限ニ関スル条約(Convention relative to Certain Restrictions with regard to the Exercise of the Right of Capture in Naval War[※ 17]
  • (XII):国際捕獲審検所の設置に関する条約(Convention relative to the Establishment of an International Prize Court)[※ 18] - 拿捕に関する条約。発効せず。
  • (XIII)]:海戦中立条約(海戦ノ場合ニ於ケル中立国ノ権利義務ニ関スル条約)(Convention concerning the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in Naval War)[※ 19]
  • (XIV):気球からの投射体及び爆発物の放出の禁止に関する宣言(Declaration Prohibiting the Discharge of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons)[※ 20]

注釈編集

  1. ^ The Avalon Project - Laws of War : Pacific Settlement of International Disputes (Hague I); 29 July 1899
  2. ^ The Avalon Project - Laws of War : Laws and Customs of War on Land (Hague II); July 29, 1899
  3. ^ The Avalon Project : Laws of War - Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of Principles of Geneva Convention of 1864 (Hague, III); July 29,1899
  4. ^ The Avalon Project : Laws of War - Declaration on the Launching of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons; July 29, 1899
  5. ^ The Avalon Project : Laws of War - Declaration on the Use of Projectiles the Object of Which is the Diffusion of Asphyxiating or Deleterious Gases; July 29, 1899
  6. ^ The Avalon Project : Laws of War - Declaration on the Use of Bullets Which Expand or Flatten Easily in the Human Body; July 29, 1899
  7. ^ The Avalon Project - Laws of War : Pacific Settlement of International Disputes (Hague I); October 18, 1907
  8. ^ The Avalon Project : Laws of War - Limitation of Employment of Force for Recovery of Contract Debts (Hague, II); October 18, 1907
  9. ^ The Avalon Project - Laws of War : Opening of Hostilities (Hague III); October 18, 1907
  10. ^ The Avalon Prject - Laws of War : Laws and Customs of War on Land (Hague IV); October 18, 1907
  11. ^ The Avalon Project - Laws of War : Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers and Persons in Case of War on Land (Hague V); October 18, 1907
  12. ^ The Avalon Project - Laws of War : Status of Enemy Merchant Ships at the Outbreak of Hostilities (Hague VI); October 18, 1907
  13. ^ The Avalon Project - Laws of War : Conversion of Merchant Ships into War Ships (Hague VII); October 18, 1907
  14. ^ The Avalon Project - Laws of War : Laying of Automatic Submarine Contact Mines (Hague VIII); October 18, 1907
  15. ^ The Avalon Project - Laws of War : Bombardment by Naval Forces in Time of War (Hague IX); October 18, 1907
  16. ^ The Avalon Project - Laws of War : Adaptation to Maritime War of the Principles of the Geneva Convention (Hague X); October 18, 1907
  17. ^ The Avalon Project - Laws of War : Restrictions With Regard to the Exercise of the Right of Capture in Naval War (Hague XI); October 18, 1907
  18. ^ Treaties, States parties, and Commentaries - Hague Convention (XII) on the International Prize Court, 1907
  19. ^ The Avalon Project - Laws of War : Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in Naval War (Hague XIII); October 18, 1907
  20. ^ Treaties, States parties, and Commentaries - Hague Declaration (XIV) on Explosives from Balloons, 1907

関連項目編集