ミルトン・バビット

ミルトン・バビットMilton Babbitt, 1916年5月10日 - 2011年1月29日[1])はアメリカ合衆国現代音楽作曲家ペンシルベニア州フィラデルフィア出身。

略歴編集

最初はペンシルベニア大学数学を専攻するが、後にニューヨーク大学に転校して音楽を学んだ。修士号はプリンストン大学で得ており、このときにはロジャー・セッションズに師事した。

十二音技法を彼なりに拡張したセリー技法を発明したことが名高く、トータル・セリエリズムの生みの親といわれる。1947年に作曲した「ピアノのための3つのコンポジション」はブーレーズメシアンカレル・フイヴェールツに先駆けたセリー技法の作品である。バビット最大の発明である素材を全て比率で制御する「セリー技法」は、アメリカでは開花せず、ヨーロッパで開花した。その後バビットは「ピッチクラス・セット理論」を開発して、12音列の過度な組織化に向かう。

彼はこの後もピアノのための「ポスト・パーティションズ」やオーケストラのための「レラータI」などで極端に複雑な「タイムポイントテクニック」を駆使した作曲を試みるが、演奏の困難さを理由にRCAシンセサイザー[2]による作曲に移行した。1973年、ジュリアード学院教授就任。

1980年代以降はアメリカの演奏家のレベルアップに伴い、以前の困難な作風を難なくこなせるロバート・トーブ(Robert Taub)のような演奏家が現れ、通常のクラシカルな編成の委嘱も舞い込むようになった。以後シンセサイザーは使っていない。晩年も作曲ペースは遅かったが、1年に1〜2作ほどの作曲は続けていた。

2011年1月29日ニュージャージー州プリンストンで逝去。

受賞歴編集

  • 1965 – Member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters
  • 1974 – Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
  • 1982 – Pulitzer Prize, Special Citation, "for his life's work as a distinguished and seminal American composer"
  • 1986 – MacArthur Fellow
  • 1988 – Mississippi Institute of Arts and Letters Award for music composition
  • 2000 – National Patron of Delta Omicron, an international, professional music fraternity
  • 2010 – The Max Reger Foundation of America – Extraordinary Life Time Musical Achievement Award

著作編集

  • (1955). "Some Aspects of Twelve-Tone Composition". The Score and I.M.A. Magazine 12:53–61.
  • (1958). "Who Cares if You Listen?". High Fidelity (February). [Babbitt called this article "The Composer as Specialist." The original title was changed without his knowledge or permission by an editor at High Fidelity.]
  • (1960). "Twelve-Tone Invariants as Compositional Determinants," The Musical Quarterly 46/2.
  • (1961). "Set Structure as Compositional Determinant," Journal of Music Theory 5/1.
  • (1965). "The Structure and Function of Musical Theory," College Music Symposium 5.
  • (1972). "Contemporary Music Composition and Music Theory as Contemporary Intellectual History", Perspectives in Musicology: The Inaugural Lectures of the Ph. D. Program in Music at the City University of New York, edited by Barry S. Brook, Edward Downes, and Sherman Van Solkema, 270–307. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-02142-4. Reprinted, New York: Pendragon Press, 1985. ISBN 0-918728-50-9.
  • (1987) Words About Music: The Madison Lectures, edited by Stephen Dembski and Joseph Straus. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press (Dembski & Strauss 1987).
  • (1992) "The Function of Set Structure in the Twelve-Tone System." PhD Dissertation. Princeton: Princeton University.
  • (2003). The Collected Essays of Milton Babbitt, edited by Stephen Peles, Stephen Dembski, Andrew Mead, Joseph Straus. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

全作品編集

  • 1935 Generatrix for orchestra (unfinished)
  • 1939–41 String Trio
  • 1940 Composition for String Orchestra (unfinished)
  • 1941 Symphony (unfinished)
  • 1941 Music for the Mass I for mixed chorus
  • 1942 Music for the Mass II for mixed chorus
  • 1946 Fabulous Voyage (musical, libretto by Richard Koch)
  • 1946 Three Theatrical Songs for voice and piano (taken from Fabulous Voyage)
  • 1947 Three Compositions for Piano
  • 1948 Composition for Four Instruments
  • 1948 String Quartet No. 1 (withdrawn)
  • 1948 Composition for Twelve Instruments
  • 1949 Into the Good Ground film music (withdrawn)
  • 1950 Composition for Viola and Piano
  • 1951 The Widow's Lament in Springtime for soprano and piano
  • 1951 Du for soprano and piano, August Stramm
  • 1953 Woodwind Quartet
  • 1954 String Quartet No. 2
  • 1954 Vision and Prayer for soprano and piano (unpublished, unperformed)
  • 1955 Two Sonnets for baritone, clarinet, viola, and cello, two poems of Gerard Manley Hopkins
  • 1956 Duet for piano
  • 1956 Semi-Simple Variations for piano
  • 1957 All Set for jazz ensemble (alto saxophone, tenor saxophone, trumpet, trombone, contrabass, piano, vibraphone, and percussion)
  • 1957 Partitions for piano
  • 1960 Composition for Tenor and Six Instruments
  • 1960 Sounds and Words for soprano and piano
  • 1961 Composition for Synthesizer
  • 1961 Vision and Prayer for soprano and synthesized tape, setting of a poem by Dylan Thomas
  • 1964 Philomel for soprano, recorded soprano, synthesized tape, setting of a poem by John Hollander
  • 1964 Ensembles for Synthesizer
  • 1965 Relata I for orchestra
  • 1966 Post-Partitions for piano
  • 1966 Sextets for violin and piano
  • 1967 Correspondences for string orchestra and synthesized tape
  • 1968 Relata II for orchestra
  • 1968–69 Four Canons for SA
  • 1969 Phonemena for soprano and piano
  • 1970 String Quartet No. 3
  • 1970 String Quartet No. 4
  • 1968–71 Occasional Variations for synthesized tape
  • 1972 Tableaux for piano
  • 1974 Arie da capo for five instrumentalists
  • 1975 Reflections for piano and synthesized tape
  • 1975 Phonemena for soprano and synthesized tape
  • 1976 Concerti for violin, small orchestra, synthesized tape
  • 1977 A Solo Requiem for soprano and two pianos
  • 1977 Minute Waltz (or 3/4 ± 1/8) for piano
  • 1977 Playing for Time for piano
  • 1978 My Ends Are My Beginnings for solo clarinet
  • 1978 My Complements to Roger for piano
  • 1978 More Phonemena for twelve-part chorus
  • 1979 An Elizabethan Sextette for six-part women's chorus
  • 1979 Images for saxophonist and synthesized tape
  • 1979 Paraphrases for ten instrumentalists
  • 1980 Dual for cello and piano
  • 1981 Ars Combinatoria for small orchestra
  • 1981 Don for four-hand piano
  • 1982 The Head of the Bed for soprano and four instruments
  • 1982 String Quartet No. 5
  • 1982 Melismata for solo violin
  • 1982 About Time for piano
  • 1983 Canonical Form for piano
  • 1983 Groupwise for flautist and four instruments
  • 1984 Four Play for four players
  • 1984 It Takes Twelve to Tango for piano
  • 1984 Sheer Pluck (composition for guitar)
  • 1985 Concerto for piano and orchestra
  • 1985 Lagniappe for piano
  • 1986 Transfigured Notes for string orchestra
  • 1986 The Joy of More Sextets for piano and violin
  • 1987 Three Cultivated Choruses for four-part chorus
  • 1987 Fanfare for double brass sextet
  • 1987 Overtime for piano
  • 1987 Souper for speaker and ensemble
  • 1987 Homily for snare drum
  • 1987 Whirled Series for saxophone and piano
  • 1988 In His Own Words for speaker and piano
  • 1988 The Virginal Book for contralto and piano, setting of a poem by John Hollander
  • 1988 Beaten Paths for solo marimba
  • 1988 Glosses for Boys' Choir
  • 1988 The Crowded Air for eleven instruments
  • 1989 Consortini for five players
  • 1989 Play It Again, Sam for solo viola
  • 1989 Emblems (Ars Emblematica), for piano
  • 1989 Soli e duettini for two guitars
  • 1989 Soli e duettini for flute and guitar
  • 1990 Soli e duettini for violin and viola
  • 1990 Envoi for four hands, piano
  • 1991 Preludes, Interludes, and Postlude for piano
  • 1991 Four Cavalier Settings for tenor and guitar
  • 1991 Mehr "Du" for soprano, viola and piano
  • 1991 None but the Lonely Flute for solo flute
  • 1992 Septet, But Equal
  • 1992 Counterparts for brass quintet
  • 1993 Around the Horn for solo horn
  • 1993 Quatrains for soprano and two clarinets
  • 1993 Fanfare for All for brass quintet
  • 1993 String Quartet No. 6
  • 1994 Triad for viola, clarinet, and piano
  • 1994 No Longer Very Clear for soprano and four instruments, setting of a poem by John Ashbery
  • 1994 Tutte le corde for piano
  • 1994 Arrivals and Departures for two violins
  • 1994 Accompanied Recitative for soprano sax and piano
  • 1995 Manifold Music for organ
  • 1995 Bicenguinguagenary Fanfare for brass quintet
  • 1995 Quartet for piano and string trio
  • 1996 Quintet for clarinet and string quartet
  • 1996 Danci for solo guitar
  • 1996 When Shall We Three Meet Again? for flute, clarinet and vibraphone
  • 1998 Piano Concerto No. 2
  • 1998 The Old Order Changeth for piano
  • 1999 Composition for One Instrument for celesta
  • 1999 Allegro Penseroso for piano
  • 1999 Concerto Piccolino for vibraphone
  • 2000 Little Goes a Long Way for violin and piano
  • 2000 Pantuns for soprano and piano
  • 2001 A Lifetime or So for tenor and piano
  • 2002 From the Psalter soprano and string orchestra
  • 2002 Now Evening after Evening for soprano and piano, setting of a poem by Derek Walcott
  • 2002 A Gloss on 'Round Midnight' for piano
  • 2003 Swan Song No. 1 for flute, oboe, violin, cello, mandolin (or guitar), and guitar
  • 2003 A Waltzer in the House for soprano and vibraphone, setting of a poem by Stanley Kunitz
  • 2004 Concerti for Orchestra, for James Levine and the Boston Symphony Orchestra
  • 2004 Autobiography of the Eye for soprano and cello, setting of a poem by Paul Auster
  • 2005–6 More Melismata for solo cello
  • 2006 An Encore for violin & piano

出典編集