広州大虐殺 (唐代)

広州大虐殺(こうしゅうだいぎゃくさつ)は、代末期、ヒジュラ紀元264年(877年-878年)に、黄巣の反乱軍が広州の住民を虐殺した事件。広州は大いに繁栄していた国際貿易港だったが、この事件でアラブ人ペルシア人などの数万人の外国人商人を含む最大20万人が犠牲になったとされる。桑原隲蔵『蒲寿庚の事績』(1923, 第一節:大食人の通商)は、ペルシャ人アブー・ザイドやマスウーディーらによるアラブ史料(アラビア語史資料)に見える国際貿易都市カンフ(Khanfu, Khanfou, خانفو)について、広府(広州)であると考証し、カンフ大虐殺はこんにち広州大虐殺と呼ばれる。桑原はまたアラブ史料に見える唐代中国都市を南から順次に数えて Loukin (またはAl Wakin)→ Khanfou (Khanfu) → Djanfou → Kantou (Kansu) であるとし、Khanfou (Khanfu) と Kantou (Kansu) の混同を疑う。一方、この都市リストについては、Loukinは洛京(洛陽)、 Khanfouは邗府(揚州)であって、唐代中国都市を北から順次に数えたとする見方もある。『旧唐書』、『新唐書』の黄巣の乱関係記事には該当するような虐殺の描写は無く、黄巣軍の広州入城も877-878年ではなく唐僖宗乾符6年(879年)旧暦9月であるなど、中国史料とアラブ史料の間には複数の相違がある。

広州大虐殺
場所 広州,
日付 878年–879年
死亡者 120,000人[1]–200,000人
犯人 黄巣
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背景編集

758年、アラブ人(大食人)・ペルシア人(波斯人)の海賊が広州を襲い、商人の倉庫を略奪する事件が起きた。広州の当局の記録には、758年10月30日(唐粛宗乾元元年旧暦9月癸巳[2][3][4][5]にアラブ・ペルシアが広州を襲った(大食、波斯寇廣州)と記されている[6]

760年、ソグド人である安禄山史思明らの乱を追討中の田神功が、安史の乱の責任は強欲な外国人たちにあるという認識から、揚州(唐名は邗府、広州から1500km北にある)の裕福な外国人(ソグド人・アラブ人・ペルシア人)商人のコミュニティーを襲うという揚州大虐殺(邗府大虐殺)が起こった[7][8][9]。『旧唐書』によると、このとき数千人の外国人商人が虐殺された[10]

874年に蜂起して巨大な反乱軍に成長した黄巣軍は、高駢の守る邗府(揚州)を避けて南下し、878年に広州の門前に至った。黄巣もまた、田神功と同様に、長く栄え富を蓄えてきた外国人たちに矛先を向けた。後述のバプテスト宣教団の報告にもみられるように、中国では国家の衰退と国内の窮状の責任は強欲な外国人たちにあるという認識が繰り返し出現した。黄巣軍はその復讐として広州で膨大な数の外国人を虐殺したと考えられる。

虐殺編集

ペルシャのアラビア語著述家アブー・ザイド(Abu Zayd Hasan Ibn Yazid Sirafi)によると、ヒジュラ紀元264年(877年から878年)、淡水の大河のほとりにあるカンフ(Khanfu خانفو)という大都市を制圧したヤンシャウ(Yan Shaw يان شوا、黄巣を指すと考えられる)の軍は、ユダヤ人、ムスリムのアラブ人やペルシア人、ゾロアスター教徒(ペルシア人やインドのパールシーなど)、キリスト教徒などを虐殺した[11][12][13][14][15][16][17]。近辺の桑林もヤンシャウの軍に荒らされた[18]。虐殺の犠牲者は裕福な外国人だった[19]。マッキントッシュスミス(Tim Macintosh Smith, Shaykh al Nāsirī)によるアブー・ザイドの地理書のアラビア語原文からの英訳(2014, 2-2-1節)は、カンフの位置が広府(広州)とは全く異なることを示す(淡水の大河のほとりにある、養蚕のための桑林が多い)。Shine Toshihiko(2020, p.59)は、ヒジュラ紀元264年(877-878年)に虐殺が起きたカンフの位置は、760年に虐殺が起きた邗府(かんふ、いまの揚州)と合致しており、アラブ史料においてふたつのカンフ大虐殺(760の邗府=揚州大虐殺と877-878あるいは879年の広府=広州大虐殺)の混同があると指摘する。Shine はまた後者(広州)のカンフについて桑原に従い Khanfu と Kansu の混同があるとし、Khanfu を広州(Kansu)から600km西にある欽府(欽州)に比定する。遣唐判官平群広成の陳述によれば、欽府(欽州)は753年に林邑で遭難した広成らを救出した熟崑崙と呼ばれる商人たちの母港であった。

外国人の犠牲者数は、12万人から20万人まで諸説ある[20][21][22]

中国に外国人が住み着いた時期は何度かあるが、彼らがしばらく居着いたそのたびに虐殺が起きた。例えば、9世紀にイスラーム教徒などが広東に住み着いた。そして889年、そこで12万人ともいわれる数の外国人が虐殺されたのだ[23]
the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society、The Baptist missionary magazine (1869年)

10世紀の歴史家マスウーディーもまた、ヤンシャウ(黄巣か?)という成り上がり者の暴徒の大軍が、淡水の大河のほとりにあるカンフという大都市を攻略し、20万人のムスリム、キリスト教徒、ユダヤ教徒、ゾロアスター教徒が殺されたり溺れ死んだりしたと述べている。彼もまた、アブー・ザイドと同様に、暴徒が周辺の桑林を切り倒したのでイスラム諸国への絹の輸出が途絶えたとも述べており(実際には乱のなかで養蚕農家や絹織物職人のコミュニティーが崩壊したため)、絹交易の観点からも、この虐殺事件に対するアラブの歴史家・地誌家の関心の高さがうかがえる[24]

脚注編集

  1. ^ Marshall Broomhall (1910). Islam in China: A Neglected Problem. Morgan & Scott, Limited. pp. 31, 50. https://books.google.com/books?id=ObcNAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA50#v=onepage&q&f=false 
  2. ^ E. Bretschneider (1871). On the knowledge possessed by the ancient Chinese of the Arabs and Arabian colonies: and other western countries, mentioned in Chinese books. LONDON 60 PATERNOSTER ROW.: Trübner & co.. p. 10. https://books.google.com/books?id=kZPMZ0AkLzoC&pg=PA3&dq=On+the+knowledge+possessed+by+the+ancient+Chinese+of+the+Arabs+and+Arabian#v=snippet&q=arabs%20persians%20together%20758%20sacked%20burned%20kuang%20chou%20&f=false 2010年6月28日閲覧. "The merchant Soleyman visited China around the middle of the ninth century. He went there by sea and landed at a town which he calls Kanfou, situated several days' journey from the sea. Renaudot and Deguignes believed he meant Canton, but Reinaud is of the opinion that Soleyman landed at Hang chou fu (in Chekiang). Another Arabian merchant, Ibn Vahab, visited and described China in 872 AD and was received by the Emperor. It appears from the relations given by these two travelers that the Arabs at that time carried on commerce with the Chinese by sea. The Chinese records do not mention this. Only in one instance (T'ang shu, Chap. 258b, Article Po ssii (Persia)) is it said that the Arabs and Persians together AD 758 sacked and burned the city of Kuang chou (Canton) and went back by sea. The Chinese text (1.c.) says: $£ Ttj" (Original from Harvard University)
  3. ^ Welsh, Frank (1974). Maya Rao. ed. A Borrowed Place: The History of Hong Kong. p. 13. ISBN 1-56836-134-3 
  4. ^ Needham, Joseph (1954). Science & Civilisation in China. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1, 179 
  5. ^ Sima Guang. Zizhi Tongjian (Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government) 
  6. ^ Schottenhammer, Angela (2012). “The "China Seas" in world history: A general outline of the role of Chinese and East Asian maritime space from its origins to c. 1800”. Journal of Marine and Island Cultures 1 (2): 63–86. doi:10.1016/j.imic.2012.11.002. 
  7. ^ John Guy (1986). John Guy. ed. Oriental Trade Ceramics in South-East Asia, Ninth to Sixteenth Centuries: With a Catalogue of Chinese, Vietnamese and Thai Wares in Australian Collections (illustrated, revised ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 7. https://books.google.com/?id=GxrrAAAAMAAJ&dq=and+when+massacres+occurred+in+Guangzhou+in+878%2C+a+contemporary+Arab+geographer%2C+Abu+Zaid%2C+recorded+that+%27Muslims%2C+Jews%2C&q=massacres+878+abu+zaid+ 2012年3月12日閲覧. "Tang period onwards, were strong enough to sack that city in 758-59 in an act of frustration prompted by the corruption of Chinese port officials, and escape by sea, probably to Tonkin where they could continue their trading activities.11 The sacking of Yang-chou in 760 by Chinese rebels resulted in the deaths of "several thousand of Po'ssi and Ta-shih merchants".12 and when massacres occurred in Guangzhou in 878, a contemporary Arab geographer, Abu Zaid, recorded that "Muslims, Jews, Christians and Parsees perished".13" 
  8. ^ Jacques Gernet (1996). A History of Chinese Civilization (2, illustrated, revised, reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 292. ISBN 0521497817. https://books.google.com/books?id=jqb7L-pKCV8C&q=879+huang+massacred+rich+foreign+merchants#v=snippet&q=yangchow%20t'ien%20shen-kung%20879%20foreign%20%20troops%20huang%20ch'ao&f=false 2012年3月12日閲覧. "In 760 several thousand Arab and Persian merchants were massacred at Yangchow by insurgent bands led by T'ien Shen-kung and a century later, in 879, it was also the foreign merchants who were attacked at Canton by the troops of Huang Ch'ao." 
  9. ^ Jacques Gernet (1996). A History of Chinese Civilization (2, illustrated, revised, reprint ed.). p. 289. ISBN 0521497817. https://books.google.com/books?id=jqb7L-pKCV8C&q=879+huang+massacred+rich+foreign+merchants#v=snippet&q=sack%20huang%20ch'ao's%20troops%20879%20&f=false 2012年3月12日閲覧. "The sack of the city by Huang Ch'ao's troops in 879," 
  10. ^ electricpulp.com. “Chinese–Iranian Relations vii. SE. China – Encyclopaedia Iranica” (英語). www.iranicaonline.org. 2018年2月6日閲覧。
  11. ^ Gabriel Ferrand, ed (1922). Voyage du marchand arabe Sulaymân en Inde et en Chine, rédigé en 851, suivi de remarques par Abû Zayd Hasan (vers 916). pp. 76 
  12. ^ Sidney Shapiro (2001). Sidney Shapiro. ed. Jews in old China: studies by Chinese scholars. Hippocrene Books. p. 60. ISBN 0781808332. https://books.google.com/?id=dd8-AQAAIAAJ&q=He+wrote:+%22During+the+Huang+Chao+rebellion+near+the+end+of+Tang,+120000+Muslims,+Jews,+Christians+and+Parsees+in+Guangfu+(Chen+Yuan's+rendition+of+the+French+%22+Khanfu%22)+on+business,+were+killed%22+(27+p.+29).+Neither+the+New+nor+Old+Tang&dq=He+wrote:+%22During+the+Huang+Chao+rebellion+near+the+end+of+Tang,+120000+Muslims,+Jews,+Christians+and+Parsees+in+Guangfu+(Chen+Yuan's+rendition+of+the+French+%22+Khanfu%22)+on+business,+were+killed%22+(27+p.+29).+Neither+the+New+nor+Old+Tang 2012年3月12日閲覧. "3. Guangzhou (Canton). Toward the end of the Tang dynasty, that is, toward the end of the ninth century, Islamic traveler Aboul Zeyd al Hassan, also called Abu Zaid, visited India and China (40). He wrote: "During the Huang Chao rebellion near the end of Tang, 120,000 Muslims, Jews, Christians and Parsees in Guangfu [Chen Yuan's rendition of the French "Khanfu"] on business, were killed" (27 p. 29). Neither the New nor Old Tang History mentions this event, though they do say that Huang Chao occupied Guangzhou in 978 and that he withdrew the following year, the reason for the pull-out being that "... a great plague" 
  13. ^ Sidney Shapiro (2001). Sidney Shapiro. ed. Jews in old China: studies by Chinese scholars. Hippocrene Books. p. 8. ISBN 0781808332. https://books.google.com/?id=dd8-AQAAIAAJ&dq=Toward+the+end+of+Tang+%28618-905%29+Arab+traveller+Abu+Zaid+Hassan+notes+that+during+Huang+Chao%27s+attack+on+Khanfu+%28Canton%29+many+Muslims%2C+Jews%2C+Christians+and+Mazdaists+%28Persian+Zoroastrians%29+were+killed.+At+that+time+people+of+various+races+from+Western+Asia+came+to+China+since+sea+trade+was+brisk&q=Huang+Chao%27s+attack+Khanfu+Muslims+Christains+Mazdaists 2012年3月12日閲覧. "Toward the end of Tang (618-905) Arab traveller Abu Zaid Hassan notes that during Huang Chao's attack on Khanfu (Canton) many Muslims, Jews, Christians and Mazdaists (Persian Zoroastrians) were killed. At that time people of various races from Western Asia came to China since sea trade was brisk" 
  14. ^ Rukang Tian (1988). Male anxiety and female chastity: a comparative study of Chinese ethical values in Ming-Chʻing times. Volume 14 of Tʻoung pao: Monographie (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 84. ISBN 9004083618. https://books.google.com/?id=YLCgu3XgOjMC&pg=PA84&dq=huang+chao+jews#v=onepage&q=huang%20chao%20arabs%20persians%20jews&f=false 2012年3月12日閲覧. "In the waning years of the T'ang Dynasty Huang Chao, a scholar who had failed repeatedly in examinations, rose furiously in revolt. It was recorded by an Arab traveler that 120,000 Arabs, Persians and Jews were killed when the rebellious army captured Canton in 879." 
  15. ^ Ray Huang (1997). China: A Macro History (2, revised, illustrated ed.). M.E. Sharpe. p. 117. ISBN 1563247305. https://books.google.com/books?id=5V1dIG5_oSAC&pg=PA117#v=onepage&q=arabic%20source%20huang's%20followers%20slew%20120%2C000%20mohammedans%20jews%20christians%20persians&f=false 2012年3月12日閲覧. "An Arabic source says that in Guangzhou Huang's followers slew 120,000 Mohammedans, Jews, Christians and Persians. This, however, is not corroborated by the Chinese writers." 
  16. ^ William J. Bernstein (2009). A Splendid Exchange: How Trade Shaped the World (illustrated ed.). Grove Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0802144164. https://books.google.com/books?id=ePiReZWp0NwC&pg=PA86#v=onepage&q=Huang%20Chao%20slaughtering%20muslims%20persians%20jews%20christians&f=false 2012年3月12日閲覧. "As early as AD 840, the emperor Wuzong sought to blame foreign ideologies for China's plight. In 878, the rebel Huang Chao sacked Canton, slaughtering 120,000 Muslims (mainly Persians), Jews, and Christians living in that city's trade community." 
  17. ^ Morris Rossabi (28 November 2014). From Yuan to Modern China and Mongolia: The Writings of Morris Rossabi. BRILL. pp. 227–. ISBN 978-90-04-28529-3. https://books.google.com/books?id=GXejBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA227&lpg=PA227#v=onepage&q&f=false 
  18. ^ William J. Bernstein (2009). A Splendid Exchange: How Trade Shaped the World (illustrated ed.). Grove Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0802144164. https://books.google.com/books?id=fvs_46NkiMwC&pg=PT97#v=onepage&q=Huang%20chao%20slaughtering%20muslims%20persians%20%20jews%20christians&f=false 2012年3月12日閲覧. "19 Not content to massacre traders, Huang Chao also tried to kill China's main export industry by destroying the mulberry groves of south China.20" 
  19. ^ Jacques Gernet (1996). A History of Chinese Civilization (2, illustrated, revised, reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 267. ISBN 0521497817. https://books.google.com/books?id=jqb7L-pKCV8C&q=879+huang+massacred+rich+foreign+merchants#v=snippet&q=879%20massacred%20rich%20foreign%20merchants&f=false 2012年3月12日閲覧. "They then traveled around Anhwei and Chekiang, reaching Foochow and in 879 Canton, where they massacred the rich foreign merchants." 
  20. ^ http://www.mykedah2.com/e_10heritage/e102_1_p2.htm
  21. ^ History of humanity
  22. ^ Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China
  23. ^ American Baptist Foreign Mission Society (1869). The Missionary magazine, Volume 49. VOLUME XLIX. BOSTON : MISSIONARY ROOMS, 12 BEDFORD STREET: American Baptist Missionary Union. p. 385. https://books.google.com/?id=IxAPAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA385&dq=Foreigners+have+at+different+periods+settled+in+China;+but+after+remaining+for+a+time,+they+have+been+massacred.+For+instance,+Mohammedans+and+others+settled+at+Canton+in+the+ninth+century;+and+in+889,+it+is+said+that+120,000+foreign+settlers+were+massacred.#v=onepage&q=Foreigners%20have%20at%20different%20periods%20settled%20in%20China%3B%20but%20after%20remaining%20for%20a%20time%2C%20they%20have%20been%20massacred.%20For%20instance%2C%20Mohammedans%20and%20others%20settled%20at%20Canton%20in%20the%20ninth%20century%3B%20and%20in%20889%2C%20it%20is%20said%20that%20120%2C000%20foreign%20settlers%20were%20massacred.&f=false 2012年3月12日閲覧. "The Chinese and Foreigners. The position and treaty rights of foreigners in China have hitherto been maintained by military force; and though Mr. Burlingame's mission appears to be especially directed to the abolishment of the " force policy," yet without force, that is, a show of military force for protection, the position of foreigners of every class would not be tenable in China a month. Foreigners have at different periods settled in China; but after remaining for a time, they have been massacred. For instance, Mohammedans and others settled at Canton in the ninth century; and in 889, it is said that 120,000 foreign settlers were massacred. Again in the sixteenth century, the Portuguese commenced trade and formed a settlement at Ningpo; Spaniards and other foreigners also settled here. But in 1542, the whole settlement, consisting of over 3,000 persons, was destroyed, most of the settlers being put to death. Also at Chapu, about seventy or eighty miles north of Ningpo, on the Hangchow bay, there was a settlement of foreigners for the purposes of trade, about two hundred years since, who at length were massacred. It is often reported among the people at Ningpo, and other places in China where there are foreigners residing, that they and all the natives connected with them are to be put to death. So rife was such a report at Ningpo, two years since, and the excitement began to be so great that the foreign consuls requested the native officials to issue proclamations to quiet the people, and threaten punishment to those circulating inflammatory reports." 
  24. ^ プリェートニェヴァ, S.A.『ハザール 謎の帝国』城田俊訳、新潮社、1996年、176-177頁。