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中原王朝に朝貢した政権の一覧

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職貢図』、6世纪梁朝。右から左へ: 滑/嚈噠人(エフタル)、波斯ペルシア)、百済亀茲(日本)、狼牙脩(ランカスカ王国英語版)、鄧至周古柯中国語版呵跋檀英語版、胡密丹、白題中国語版且末国 中国語版

本項は中原王朝に歴史的に朝貢した政権の一覧である。

朝貢国間の地位階層は朝貢体制の明確な要素であり、朝鮮ベトナム日本琉球諸島シャムビルマ諸王国などを含むその他の国々よりも上に格付けされた[1]

目次

現在の中華人民共和国の領土内編集

現在の中華人民共和国の領土外編集

参考文献編集

  1. ^ Kang, David C. (2010). East Asia Before the West: Five Centuries of Trade and Tribute, p. 59., p. 59, - Google ブックス
  2. ^ a b c Korean History Project, Unified Silla.
  3. ^ Gundry, "Tibet," pp. 610-611., p. 610, - Google ブックス
  4. ^ WORLD HISTORY: THE HUMAN ODYSSEY, West Educational Publishing ISBN 0-314-2056105 Author: Jackson J. Spiegvogel
  5. ^ Chisholm, Hugh. (1911). The Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol. 15, p. 224, p. 224, - Google ブックス
  6. ^ Yoda, Yoshiie et al. (1996) The Foundations of Japan's Modernization: a Comparison with China's Path, p. 40., p. 40, - Google ブックス; excerpt, "While other countries in East Asia were almost consistently emeshed within the Chinese tribute system, Japan found itself sometimes inside sometimes outside of the system ...."
  7. ^ 「後漢書」 巻85 東夷列伝 倭条「三国志」魏書 巻30 東夷伝 倭人条晋書 巻97 四夷伝 東夷条によれば、1世紀に2使節、3世紀に4使節、5世紀に4使節が中原王朝へと送られた。
  8. ^ Yoda, p. 40., p. 40, - Google ブックス; excerpt, "... King Na was awarded the seal of the Monarch of the Kingdom of Wa during the Chinese Han dynasty, and Queen Himiko, who had sent a tribute mission to the Wei Dynasty (third century) was followed by the five kings of Wa who also offered tribute to the Wei. This evidence points to the fact that at this period Japan was inside the Chinese tribute system ...."
  9. ^ a b Book of Sui, vol. 81
  10. ^ The Early Relations between China and Japan
  11. ^ Delmer M. Brown, John Whitney Hall. The Cambridge History of Japan: Ancient Japan, pp. 280-283., p. 280, - Google ブックス
  12. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Kentoshi" in Japan encyclopedia, p. 511, p. 511, - Google ブックス; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File Archived 2012-05-24 at Archive.is.
  13. ^ Yoda, p. 40., p. 40, - Google ブックス; excerpt, "... Japanese missions to the Sui [Dynasty] (581-604) ... were recognized by the Chinese as bearers of imperial tribute ...."
  14. ^ Imperial envoys made perilous passages on kentoshi-sen ships to Tang China "The cross-cultural exchanges began with 5 missions between 600 and 614, initially to Sui China (on kenzuishi-sen), and at least 18 or 19 missions were sent to T’ang China from 630 to 894 although not all of them were designated kentoshi."
  15. ^ Fogel, Joshua A. (2009). Articulating the Sinosphere: Sino-Japanese Relations in Space and Time, pp. 102-107., p. 102, - Google ブックス
  16. ^ Yoda, p. 40., p. 40, - Google ブックス; excerpt, "Japanese missions to the ... Tang Dynasties were recognized by the Chinese as bearers of imperial tribute; however, in the middle of the ninth century -- the early Heian Period -- Japan rescinded he sending of missions to the Tang Empire. Subsequently Japan conducted a flourishing trade with China and for the next five hundred years also imported much of Chinese culture, while nevertheless remaining outside the tribute system."
  17. ^ Edwin O. Reischauer (1955). Ennin's travels in T'ang China: Chapter Ⅲ - Kentoshi. 978-89-460-3814-1
  18. ^ 旧唐書 巻199上
  19. ^ Fogel, p. 27., p. 27, - Google ブックス; Goodrich, Luther Carrington et al. (1976). Dictionary of Ming biography, 1368-1644, p. 1316., p. 1316, - Google ブックス; note: the economic benefit of the Sinocentric tribute system was profitable trade. The tally trade (kangō bōeki or kanhe maoyi in Chinese) was a system devised and monitored by the Chinese -- see Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric et al. (2005). Japan Encyclopedia, p. 471.
  20. ^ Frederick W. Mote, Denis Twitchett, John King Fairbank. The Cambridge history of China: The Ming dynasty, 1368-1644, Part 1, pp. 491-492., p. 491, - Google ブックス
  21. ^ a b Kerr, George. (2000). Okinawa: The History of an Island People, p. 74., p. 74, - Google ブックス
  22. ^ a b c d Kerr, George. (2000). Okinawa: The History of an Island People, p. 65., p. 65, - Google ブックス
  23. ^ Kerr, p. 66., p. 66, - Google ブックス
  24. ^ a b c d e "Tribute and Trade" Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine., KoreanHistoryProject.org. Retrieved on 30-01-2007.
  25. ^ Gundry, "Annam," pp. 613-615., p. 613, - Google ブックス
  26. ^ a b c d e f g Pratt, Keith L. (1999). Korea: a historical and cultural dictionary. p. 482. https://books.google.com/books?id=vj8ShHzUxrYC&pg=PA482&dq=tribute+korea+china&hl=en#v=onepage&q=tribute%20korea%20china&f=false. 
  27. ^ Kwak, Tae-Hwan et al. (2003). The Korean peace process and the four powers, p. 100., p. 100, - Google ブックス; excerpt, "The tributary relations between China and Korea came to an end when China was defeated in the Sino-Japanese war of 1894-1895."
  28. ^ a b c d Korea Herald. (2004) Korea now, p. 31; excerpt, "The Chinese also insist that even though Goguryeo was part of Chinese domain, Silla and Baekje were states subjected to China's tributary system."
  29. ^ 魏書》《南史》《北史》《隋書》《旧唐書》《新唐書
  30. ^ Seth, Michael J. (2006). A concise history of Korea, p. 64, p. 64, - Google ブックス; excerpt, "China found instead that its policy of using trade and cultural exchanges and offering legitimacy and prestige to the Silla monarchy was effective in keeping Silla safely in the tributary system. Indeed, the relationship that was worked out in the late seventh and early eighth centuries can be considered the beginning of the mature tributary relationship that would characterize Sino-Korean interchange most of the time until the late nineteenth century;"
  31. ^ 《南史》《北史》《隋書》《旧唐書》《新唐書》
  32. ^ 資治通鑑
  33. ^ 十国春秋
  34. ^ a b Kwak, p. 99., p. 99, - Google ブックス; excerpt, "Korea's tributary relations with China began as early as the fifth century, were regularized during the Goryeo dynasty (918-1392), and became fully institutionalized during the Yi dynasty (1392-1910)."
  35. ^ Clark, Donald N. (1998). “The Ming Dynasty 1368-1644 Part 2”. The Cambridge history of China 8: 280. ISBN 0-521-24333-5. https://books.google.com/books?id=tVhvh6ibLJcC&pg=PA280&dq=391+envoys&hl=en#v=onepage&q=391%20envoys&f=false. "Between 1392 and 1450, the Choson court dispatched 391 envoys to China: on average, seven each year." 
  36. ^ Kang, David C. (2010). East Asia Before the West: Five Centuries of Trade and Tribute. Columbia University Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-231-15318-8. https://books.google.com/books?id=ydVymF_OrWEC&pg=PT75&dq=435&hl=en#v=onepage&q=435&f=false. "thus, between 1637 and 1881, Korea sent 435 special embassies to the Qing court, or an average of almost 1.5 embassies per year." 
  37. ^ Malaysia-Philippines Territorial Dispute: The Sabah Case (PDF)”. National Chengchi University. NCCU Institutional Repository (2014年7月). 2016年5月9日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。2016年5月9日閲覧。
  38. ^ Examining the Connection Between Ancient China and Borneo Through Santubong Archaeological Sites (PDF)”. Tsinghua University and Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Pennsylvania. Sino-Platonic Papers (2013年4月). 2016年5月14日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。2016年5月14日閲覧。
  39. ^ Johannes L. Kurz. “Boni in Chinese Sources: Translations of Relevant Texts from the Song to the Qing Dynasties (PDF)”. Universiti Brunei Darussalam. National University of Singapore. pp. 1. 2014年5月22日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。2014年6月1日閲覧。
  40. ^ a b c d e Shambaugh, David L. et al. (2008). International Relations of Asia, p. 54 n15., p. 54, - Google ブックス citing the 1818 Collected Statutes of the Qing Dynasty (DaQing hui-tien)
  41. ^ Funan”. About.com. 2007年6月2日閲覧。
  42. ^ The Kingdom of Funan and Chenla (First to Eighth Century AD)”. 2004年1月9日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。2007年6月6日閲覧。
  43. ^ Chinese Sui Dynasty annals Archived 2006-06-27 at the Wayback Machine.
  44. ^ Kadaram and Kataha
  45. ^ Kelantan
  46. ^ First Ruler of Melaka : Parameswara 1394-1414
  47. ^ The Political Economy of Philippines- China Relations Archived 2007-06-21 at the Wayback Machine.
  48. ^ Gundry, "Siam," pp. 616-619., p. 616, - Google ブックス
  49. ^ Gundry, "Burma," pp. 611-613., p. 611, - Google ブックス
  50. ^ Gundry, "Nepal," pp. 609-610., p. 609, - Google ブックス
  51. ^ The TIMES Atlas of World History THIRD EDITION ISBN 0-07230-0304-1
  52. ^ http://www.lse.ac.uk/economicHistory/Research/GEHN/GEHNPDF/GEHNWP21-GA.pdf

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